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Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Nutrients

What is the right amount of a vitamin or mineral to get each day? To help you, below are recommended intake levels for selected nutrients based on RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances) from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences. In cases where no RDA is established, the IOM has developed AIs (Adequate Intake) levels, which are shown.

Is it possible to get too much of nutrient? Yes. For this reason, ULs (Upper Tolerable Intake Levels) are also set by the IOM and are provided below. There is an increased risk of an adverse event when exceeding the UL – although sometimes these risks are acceptable when the nutrient is used in medical treatment.

Why do DV (Daily Value) figures on food and supplement labels not coincide with the RDAs and AIs? The DVs do not necessarily reflect the latest intake recommendations from the IOM, nor do they carefully distinguish needs by age and gender. Although FDA has noted its intention to update the DVs, it has not done so since 1968.

ConsumerLab.com has full reports on each of these nutrients which include independent tests and reviews of brands of vitamin and supplement products. You can access these ConsumerLab.com (CL) reports using the links below. Also, see our reports on Multivitamins, and reports on other nutrients and popular supplements.

Click on a Nutrient
Vitamins
B Vitamins
B Vitamins
(cont’d)
Minerals
Minerals
(cont’d)
Minerals
(cont’d)
Vitamin A
Biotin
Riboflavin
Calcium
Iron
Potassium
Vitamin C
Choline
Thiamin
Chromium
Magnesium
Selenium
Vitamin D
Folate
Vitamin B-6
Copper
Molybdenum
Zinc
Vitamin E
Niacin
Vitamin B-12
Fluoride
Manganese

Vitamin K
Pantothenic Acid

Iodine
Phosphorus



Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Common Nutrients
Age

Vitamin A

See Report
Folate
(Vitamin B-9)
See Report
Vitamin C

See Report
Vitamin D

See Report
Calcium

See Report
Iron

See Report
RDA1
Upper Limit2
RDA3
Upper Limit4
RDA
Upper Limit
RDA5
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit
1 - 3
1,000 IU
2,000 IU
150 mcg
300 mcg
15 mg
400 mg
600 IU
2,500 IU
700
mg
2,500 mg
7 mg
40 mg
4 - 8
1,300 IU
3,000 IU
200 mcg
400 mcg
25 mg
650 mg
600 IU
3,000 IU
1,000 mg
2,500 mg
10 mg
40 mg
9 - 13
2,000 IU
5,666 IU
300 mcg
600 mcg
45 mg
1,200 mg
600 IU
4,000 IU
1,300 mg
2,500 mg
8 mg
40 mg
14 - 18
1,000 IU
9,333 IU
400 mcg
800 mcg
75 mg (m)
65 mg (f)
80 mg (preg)
115 mg (lact)
1,800 mg
600 IU
4,000 IU
1,300 mg
2,500 mg
11 mg (m)
15 mg (f)
27 mg (preg)
10 mg (lact)
45 mg
Adult
3,000 IU (m)
2,300 IU (f)
10,000 IU
400 mcg
600 mcg (preg)/
500 mcg (lact)
1,000 mcg
90 (m)
75 mg (f)
85 mg (preg)
120 (lact)
2,000 mg
600 IU (51- 70 years)
800 IU (71+ years)
4,000 IU
1,000 mg (to 50 years)
1,200 mg (51+ years)
2,500 mg
8 mg (m)
18 mg (f 19 to 50 years)
8 mg (f 51+ years)
27 mg (preg)
9 mg (lact)
45 mg
Source: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.)
Abbreviations: f - female; lact – lactating (breast feeding) female; m – male; preg – pregnant female; mg – milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg – microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 Figures for vitamin A may also be expressed in mcg rather than IU (International Units). The mcg equivalent of one IU of vitamin A depends on the form, such as retinol, retinyl acetate, or retinyl palmitate. Most labels show value in IU (International Units).
2 UL for vitamin A applies only to retinol forms, not beta-carotene.
3 Folate from supplements and fortified foods is absorbed twice as well as from regular food. If using supplements or fortified foods as your source, then only half the listed amount is required.
4 UL for folate applies only to supplements and fortified foods, not regular foods.
5 Figures may also be expressed in mcg (1 mcg =40 IU) but most labels show value in IU (International Units).


Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age

Vitamin E

See Report
Vitamin K

See Report
Thiamin

See Report
Riboflavin

See Report
Niacin

See Report
Vitamin B6

See Report
RDA1
S = Synthetic
N = Natural
Upper Limit2
Ade-
quate
Intake3
Upper Limit4
RDA
Upper Limit5
RDA
Upper Limit6
RDA
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit
1 - 3
13 IU
(S)
9 IU
(N)
220 IU
(S)
300 IU
(N)
30 mcg
NE
0.5 mg
NE
0.5 mg
NE
6 mg
10 mg
0.5 mg
30 mg
4 - 8
16 IU
(S)
10 IU
(N)
330 IU
(S)
450 IU
(N)
55 mcg
NE
0.6 mg
NE
0.6 mg
NE
8 mg
15 mg
0.6 mg
40 mg
9 - 13
24 IU
(S)
16 IU
(N)
660 IU
(S)
900 IU
(N)
60 mcg
NE
0.9 mg
NE
0.9 mg
NE
12 mg
20 mg
1.0 mg
60 mg
14 - 18
33 IU
(S)
22 IU
(N)
880 IU
(S)
1,200 IU
(N)
75 mcg
NE
1.2 mg (m)
1 mg (f)
NE
1.3 mg (m)
1 mg (f)
NE
16 mg (m)
14 mg (f)
30 mg
1.3 mg (m)
1.2 mg (f)
80 mg
Adult
33 IU
(S)
22 IU
(N)
1,100 IU
(S)
1,500 IU
(N)
120 mcg (m)
90 mcg (f)
NE
1.2 mg (m)
1.1 mg (f)
1.4 mg (preg and lact)
NE
1.3 mg (m)
1.1 mg (f)
1.4 mg (preg)
1.6 mg (lact)
NE
16 mg (m)
14 mg (f)
18 mg (preg)
17 mg (lact)
35 mg
1.3 mg (m 19 to 50 years)
1.7 mg (m 51+ years)
1.3 mg (f 19 to 50 years)
1.5 mg (f 51+ years)
1.9 mg (preg)
2.0 mg (lact)
100 mg
Source: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.)
Abbreviations: NE – not established; f - female; lact – lactating (breast feeding) female; m – male; preg – pregnant female; mg – milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg – microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 Vitamin E amounts may also be expressed in milligrams (mg). For those amounts, see the Vitamin E Report.
2 The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.
3 RDA not established for vitamin K. Figures based on AI.
4 ULs are not established for vitamin K.
5 ULs are not established for thiamin.
6 ULs are not established for riboflavin.


Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age

Vitamin B-12

See Report
Pantothenic Acid

See Report
Biotin

See Report
Choline
Chromium

See Report
Copper
RDA
Upper Limit2
Ade-
quate
Intake3
Upper Limit4
Ade-
quate
Intake5
Upper Limit6
Ade-
quate
Intake7
Upper Limit
Ade-
quate
Intake8
Upper Limit9
RDA
Upper Limit
1 - 3
0.9 mcg
NE
2 mg
NE
8 mcg
NE
200 mg
1 g
11 mcg
NE
340 mcg
1,000 mcg
4 - 8
1.2 mcg
NE
3 mg
NE
12 mcg
NE
250 mg
1 g
15 mcg
NE
440 mcg
3,000 mcg
9 - 13
1.8 mcg
NE
4 mg
NE
20 mcg
NE
375 mg
2 g
25 mcg (m)
21 mcg (f)
NE
700 mcg
5,000 mcg
14 - 18
2.4 mcg
NE
5 mg
NE
25 mcg
NE
550 mg (m)
400 mg (f)
3 g
35 mcg (m)
24 mcg (f)
29 mcg (preg)
44 mcg (lact)
NE
890 mcg
1,000 mcg (preg)
1,300 mcg (lact)
8,000 mcg
Adult
2.4 mcg1
2.6 mcg (preg)
2.8 mcg(lact)
NE
5 mg
6 mg (preg)
7 mg (lact)
NE
30 mcg
35 mcg (lact)
NE
550 mg (m)
425 mg (f)
450 mg (preg)
550 mg (lact)
3.5 g
35 mcg (m 19 to 50 years)
25 mcg (f 19 to 50 years)
30 mcg (m 50+ years)
20 mcg (f 50+ years)
30 mcg (preg)
45 mcg (lact)
NE
900 mcg
1,000 mcg (preg)
1,300 mcg (lact)
10,000 mcg
Source: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.)
Abbreviations: NE – not established; f - female; lact – lactating (breast feeding) female; m – male; preg – pregnant female; mg – milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg – microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 Because 10% to 30% of older people may malabsorb food bound vitamin B-12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods with vitamin B12 or a supplement containing vitamin B12.
2 ULs are not established for vitamin B-12.
3 RDA not established for pantothenic acid
4 ULs are not established for pantothenic acid.
5 RDA not established for biotin
6 ULs not established for biotin.
7 RDA not established for choline. Choline is technically not a vitamin, but is often listed with B vitamins.
8 RDA not established for chromium.
9 ULs not established for chromium.


Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age

Fluoride
Iodine
Magnesium

See Report
Manganese
Molybdenum
Phosphorus
Ade-
quate
Intake1
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit2
Ade-
quate
Intake3
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit
1 - 3
0.7 mg
1.3 mg
90 mcg
200 mcg
80 mg
65 mg
1.2 mg
2 mg
17 mcg
300 mcg
460 mg
3 g
4 - 8
1 mg
2.2 mg
90 mcg
300 mcg
130 mg
110 mg
1.5 mg
3 mg
22 mcg
600 mcg
500 mg
3 g
9 - 13
2 mg
10 mg
120 mcg
600 mcg
240 mg
350 mg
1.9 mg (m)
1.6 mg (f)
6 mg
34 mcg
1,100 mcg
1,250 mg
4 g
14 - 18
3 mg
10 mg
150 mcg
900 mcg
410 mg (m)
360 mg (f)
400 mg (preg)
360 mg (lact)
350 mg
2.2 mg (m)
1.6 mg (f)
9 mg
43 mcg
1,700 mcg
1,250 mg
4 g
3.5 g (preg)
4 g
(lact)
Adult
4 mg (m)
3 mg (f)
10 mg
150 mcg
220 mcg (preg)
290 mcg (lact)
1,100 mcg
400 mg (m 19 to 30 years)
420 mg (m 30+ years)
310 mg (f 19 to 30 years)
350 mg (preg 19 to 30 years)
310 mg (lact 19 to 30 years)
320 mg (f 30+ years)
360 mg (preg 30+ years)
320 mg (lact 30+ years)
350 mg
2.3 mg (m)
1.8 mg (f)
2 mg (preg)
2.6 mg (lact)
11 mg
45 mcg
50 mcg (preg and lact)
2,000 mcg
700
mg
4 g
(19 to 70 years)
3 g
(70+ years)
Source: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.)
Abbreviations: f - female; lact – lactating (breast feeding) female; m – male; preg – pregnant female; mg – milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg – microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 RDA not established for fluoride
2 The UL's for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacologic agent only and do not include intake from food and water.
3 RDA not established for manganese.


Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age

Potassium

See Report
Selenium

See Report
Zinc

See Report
Adequate Intake1
Upper Limit2
RDA
Upper Limit
RDA
Upper Limit
1 - 3
3.0 g
NE
20 mcg
90 mcg
3 mg
7 mg
4 - 8
3.8 g
NE
30 mcg
150 mcg
5 mg
12 mg
9 - 13
4.5 g
NE
40 mcg
280 mcg
8 mg
23 mg
14 - 18
4.7 g
NE
55 mcg
400 mcg
11 mg (m)
9 mg (f)
12 mg (preg)
13 mg (lact)
34 mg
Adult
4.7 g
5.1 g (lact)
NE
55 mcg
60 mcg (preg)
70 mcg (lact)
400 mcg
11 mg (m)
8 mg (f)
11 mg (preg)
12 mg (lact)
40 mg
Source: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.)
Abbreviations: NE – not established; f - female; lact – lactating (breast feeding) female; m – male; preg – pregnant female; mg – milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg – microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 RDA not established for potassium.
2 ULs are not established for potassium.
 

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