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Question:
Is there evidence that d-limonene can help fight cancer?

Answer:
D-limonene is found in the peels of citrus fruits like lemons, oranges, limes and grapefruit. It is a common flavor enhancer in foods, beverages and gum. It is sometimes used to increase the absorption of certain supplements, like CoQ10 and ubiquinol, and, at a lower dose, may serve as a digestive aid. Some studies and reports suggest d-limonene might play a role in preventing or slowing certain cancers, or enhancing the effectiveness of cancer treatments, but the research remains preliminary and far from convincing. See the full answer for details>>

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Michelle15325   July 26, 2017
If indeed it is a good thing to use the outer peels of citrus fruits then should we not stick to organics? as those are some of the most heavily sprayed foods i know of! & I don't believe washing would be enough to detoxify the peels but I am open to hearing otherwise if so..

Valerie14036   May 15, 2017
Can anyone advise me as to where I can purchase D-limonene? My GERD symptoms are now interfering with my quality of life and the idea of being on PPI's indefinitely has it's own host of problems.

Eric15117   June 16, 2017
It is available at Amazon.com. I buy it there.

Raissa16509   February 26, 2018
Jarrow formula d-limonene on iHerb

Philip11301   September 26, 2016
I take D-limonene whenever I get a flare up of gastric reflux and within a few days it has gone. In fact a few years ago I developed Barrett's Esophagus and was prescribed Losec twice a day, but after a year or so decided to stop taking Losec and went on to D-limonene.

At my next gastroscopy my surgeon was amazed at the improvement saying that there was no sign of the Barretts......and what had I done to effect such a change.

I told him about D-limonene and he said he was going to do some research on it, mainly because a friend of his had the same condition and nothing seemed to be helping!!

I was/am lucky to have a surgeon who keeps a fairly open mind on such things.

Phil

Bev15451   August 24, 2017
Were you taking the D-limonene in pill form? Or getting it from the skin of citrus fruits?

Audrey586   February 24, 2015
I have some added information regarding recent and ongoing research within the family of foods known as terpines and terpenoids conducted within the US and China, who has been utilizing terpenoid plant compounds for hundreds of years.
According to an article in ,Curr Drug Targets. Jun; 11 (6) 733-44 , terpenoids can inhibit hormonally induced cancers AND diets rich in these phytochemicals are inversely related to the risk of these cancers.
Additionally, according to researcher M Huang, within the Journal Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012 Dec. , traditional Chinese medicine utilizes five categories of terpenoids , as in, monoterpinoids, diterpinoids, triterpinoids, tetraterpinoids, and sesquiterpenoids. One group within the terpenoids known as GLTs are derived from the Reishi mushroom. GLT stands for Ganoderma.lucidum and is from the triterpinoid group listed above. The chemical from this particular mushroom offers some far reaching potential within the world of anti cancer research because it is being determined within laboraties as this is written that these chemicals operate against cancer cells in various stages of cancer formation , including cell cycle arrest, to apoptosis and auto phag,y and suppression of metastisis and angio genesis.
In China, these studies are finding promising effects upon ovarian cancer from the GLT triterpinoid. The complete name of the above mushroom is, Ganoderma lucidum, Reishimax; an herbal mushroom, the dried powder extract of which is utilized in many countries besides China. This information can be reread at BMC Complement & Altern Med. 2014 Nov 5.
This new area of research is especially fascinating to the female population, such as myself, since Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer related death in women!....A more complete method to access this article, completely is: Journal List > BMC Complement Altern Med > v.14; 2014> PMC4232 >30 .

Audrey585   February 24, 2015
Dear Consumer Labs,
It is somewhat ironic and merely noteworthy to find that 1 gm daily of d-limonene, found within the outer colorful skin of many citrus fruits has been shown to improve symptoms of heartburn and GERD, while at the same time, only a few millimeters from the skin of such fruit, the fruit pulp itself and the juice from such fruit often aggravates and perpetuates acid reflux!

Gary556   February 18, 2015
ARE ALL OF THE STUDIES WRONG ABOUT D-Limonene???/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22318307 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470060 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24160248 -

ConsumerLab.com   February 19, 2015
Hi Gary - It's not that these studies are wrong, just that they are preliminary - mostly performed in mice, rats or tissue samples. It's important to look at studies in people to know what effect d-limonene might have - like the study in patients with advanced cancer, noted in the Answer above.

David8211   December 25, 2015
All three studies cited support the idea that d-limonene can help fight cancer.

Audrey548   February 13, 2015
Wondering whether the d-limonene is in its highest concentration in the yellow and orange aspect of the outer skin of lemons and oranges or is it held in higher concentration within the spongey white area of citrus skins.

ConsumerLab.com   February 24, 2015
Hi Audrey - D-limonene is found in the outer portion of the peel, whereas the soft white part underneath consists mostly of fiber.

Barbara538   February 11, 2015
Question re: D-limonene. Is it only in the outer skin of citrus peel ... or also in the soft white tissue under the harder/darker outer skin?

ConsumerLab.com   February 23, 2015
Hi Barbara - D-limonene is found in the outer skin of the citrus peel (called the flavedo). The soft white part underneath (albedo) is made up of fiber, such as pectin.

This CL Answer initially posted on 2/11/2015. Last updated 8/4/2017.

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