HOW PRODUCTS WERE EVALUATED:
How Products were Selected:
Products were selected to represent those commonly sold and/or available nationally in the U.S. ConsumerLab.com purchased products on the open market through retail stores, on-line retailers, and direct sales or multi-level marketing companies. Products were not accepted directly from manufacturers.
Products were tested for amount(s) of key marker compounds for Ginkgo biloba. Quantitative analysis of flavonol glycosides utilizing a HPLC method with UV detection and analysis of bilobalide and ginkgolides (Terpene Lactones) by HPLC using an Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD). Analyses included identification of potential contamination with lead in botanical products.
Analyses for lead were performed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) instrumentation.
Disintegration of non-chewable, non-capsule, non-enteric coated and non-time release formulations was analyzed by ConsumerLab.com utilizing USP (United States Pharmacopeia) <2040> methodology.
Products failing to meet any Passing Score were re-tested in a second independent laboratory using similar methods and instrumentation.
ConsumerLab.com may modify or use other appropriate test methods if necessary to test special product formulations.
Passing Score: *
To pass testing, a product had to:
** Based on State of California's Prop 65 lead limit. California requires supplements exceeding this limit to bear a warning label regarding lead.
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