How Products were Selected:Products tested represent those commonly sold and/or available nationally in the U.S. ConsumerLab.com purchased products on the open market through retail stores, on-line retailers and direct sales. Products were not accepted directly from manufacturers.
- Analyses for magnesium, potassium and sodium were performed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Chloride was analyzed using ion chromatography.
- Analyses for lead, cadmium, and arsenic were performed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).
- Analyses for fructose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose and galactose were performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
ConsumerLab.com may modify or use other appropriate test methods if necessary to test special product formulations.
The identities of the products were not disclosed to the laboratories performing the testing.
Passing Score:*To be "Approved" by Consumerlab.com, a product must meet the following requirements:
- Products must contain 100% and no more than 125% of the listed amounts of magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride and total sugars (as fructose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose and galactose). If the amount of any of these nutrients are not claimed, the amount found is reported. Products exceeding Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) of these nutrients will be noted.
- Heavy Metals: Products must not exceed the following limits:
- Products marketed for use by children may not exceed the State of California's Prop 65 limits for lead in dietary supplements of 0.5 mcg per recommended daily serving with an additional allowance of 0.8 mcg if the product contains more than 1,000 mg/day of calcium.
- Products with single serving weights of less than 5 grams that are not marketed for use by children, may not exceed 0.5 mcg of lead per recommended daily serving (based on the State of California's Prop 65 limit for lead in dietary supplements, above which a warning is required regarding reproductive harm, birth defects, and cancer risks) with an additional allowance of 0.4 mcg if containing 250-999 mg/day of any combination of elemental calcium, magnesium and potassium or 0.8 mcg if containing more than 1,000 mg/day of any combination of these minerals. An additional allowance of 0.5 mcg is provided if containing 250-999 mg/day of whole herb (not extract) or 1.0 mcg if containing 1,000 mg/day or more of whole herb (not extract). However, total lead allowance will not exceed 2 mcg.
- Products with single serving weights of 5 grams or more which are not marketed for children may not exceed 2.5 mcg per serving nor 4.0 mcg per daily serving.
- If marketed for use by children, may not exceed 3.0 micrograms of cadmium per recommended daily serving (based on Canada's limit for a child weighing 75 lbs.). If not marketed for use by children, may not exceed 4.1 micrograms of cadmium per recommended daily serving (above which California's Prop 65 law requires a "reproductive harm" warning due to developmental toxicity and male reproductive harm).
- Contain less than 10 micrograms of total arsenic (EPA limit and state of New Jersey limits - based on 1 liter of water) and no more than 2.1 micrograms of inorganic arsenic per daily serving (Canada's limit in natural health products).
- Meet all FDA labeling requirements.
* Passing scores allow for specific margins of technical error associated with each analysis. ConsumerLab.com reserves the right to disqualify a product at any time from passing if it considers such product to display unacceptable variation in quality, present a safety risk or to provide misleading or inaccurate information in its labeling.