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White Plains, New York, February 3, 2017 — Choline is an essential nutrient important for liver and brain function. It can be obtained from the diet and most people also produce significant amounts in their bodies. However postmenopausal women and people with certain genetic variants are less able to do so and may not get enough choline. Inadequate choline may cause fatty liver disease and muscle damage. Choline as a supplement has shown potential benefit in stroke recovery, cognition, Alzheimer's disease, asthma, and ulcerative colitis.

Unfortunately, choosing a choline supplement can be confusing, as there are many forms of choline from which to choose, including phosphatidylcholine (from soy lecithin), citicoline (or CDP-choline), choline citrate, and alpha glycerylphosphoryl choline (alpha-GPC). Although supplements must list their amounts of these ingredients, few list the amounts of choline they provide — which can represent 14% to over 40% of the listed ingredient. To help consumers more knowledgably select products, purchased ten popular choline supplements and tested their amounts of choline, compared their prices, and reviewed the clinical evidence for each form.

Although each of the tested supplements was found to be accurately labeled, the amount of choline in products ranged from just 50 mg to as much as 1,500 mg. The cost of obtaining a 100 mg dose of choline ranged from just 12 cents to $1.15 across the products, with large differences in cost even among products containing the same form of choline. Among the products tested (including one tested through CL's voluntary Quality Certification Program, identified several as Top Picks for providing choline at the lowest cost to the consumer.

Choline supplement quality ratings and comparisons are now available in's Choline Supplements (Including Phosphatidylcholine, CDP-Choline, and Alpha-GPC) Review ( The report also summarizes the clinical evidence for the different forms of choline, noting dosage, side-effects, and potential drug interactions.

Products covered in the Review are Andrew Lessman ProCaps Phosphatidyl Choline, Bestvite Cognizin, Biotics Research Corporation Phosphatidylcholine, Cardiovascular Research Ltd. Cytidine Choline, Complementary Prescriptions CDP Choline, Jarrow Formulas Alpha GPC, Perque Choline Citrate, Recall Elements, Swanson Ultra Alpha-GPC, tnvitamins Citicoline, and Twinlab Choline Cocktail.

Founded in 1999, is a leading provider of consumer information and independent evaluations of products that affect health and nutrition. Membership to is available online and provides immediate access to reviews of more than 1,000 products from over 400 brands. The company is privately held and based in Westchester, New York. It has no ownership from, or interest in, companies that manufacture, distribute, or sell consumer products.

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