How Products Were Selected:Products tested represent those commonly sold and/or available nationally in the U.S. ConsumerLab.com purchased products on the open market through retail stores, on-line retailers and direct sales companies. Products were not accepted directly from manufacturers.
Testing Methods:Cranberry products were tested in one or more independent laboratories for the following:
- Quantification of soluble proanthocyanidins (PACs) using BL-DMAC assay (AOAC 2019.06).
- Analyses for lead, cadmium and arsenic by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).
- Determination of the percentage of A-type and B-type interflavan bonds using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (AOAC 2019.05).
- Disintegration of tablets (excluding chewable, sublingual and time-release formulations) using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) <2040> methodology.
ConsumerLab.com may modify or use other appropriate test methods if necessary to test special product formulations.
The identities of products were not disclosed to the laboratories performing the testing.
Passing Score:*To "Pass" a product must:
- Meet 100% of its label claims for PACs and any equivalence statements with regard to cranberry juice.
- A minimum of 80% of PACs contain one or more A-type interflavan bonds out of total A-type + B-type interflavan bonds (for authenticity) (Feliciano, R.P. et al. Food Chemistry. 2012; 135:1485-1493).
- Heavy Metals: Products must not exceed the following limits:
- Products marketed for use by children may not exceed the State of California's Prop 65 limits for lead in dietary supplements of 0.5 mcg per recommended daily serving with an additional allowance of 0.8 mcg if the product contains more than 1,000 mg/day of calcium.
- Supplements with single serving weights of less than 5 grams which are not marketed for use by children, may not exceed the State of California's Prop 65 limits for lead in dietary supplements of 0.5 mcg per recommended daily serving with an additional allowance of 0.4 mcg if containing 250-999 mg/day of any combination of elemental calcium, magnesium and potassium or 0.8 mcg if containing more than 1,000 mg/day of any combination of these minerals. An additional allowance of 0.5 mcg is provided if containing 250 to 999 mg/day of whole herb (not extract). However, total lead allowance will not exceed 2 mcg per day.
- Supplements with single serving weights of 5 grams or more which are not marketed for children may not exceed 2.5 mcg per serving nor 4.0 mcg per daily serving.
- In juices and concentrates, lead must not exceed 1 mcg per suggested serving. (References: California Prop 65 limits for supplements (below), California Public Health Goals for Chemicals in Drinking Water of 0.5 mcg and 1.5 mcg lead per 250 mL (approx. 1 cup), respectively, as a neurobehavioral toxin and a carcinogen; U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goal is zero for lead in drinking water, but action level is 3.75 mcg per 250 mL.)
- If marketed for use by children, may not exceed 3.0 micrograms of cadmium per recommended daily serving (based on Canada's limit for a child weighing 75 lbs.). If not marketed for use by children, may not exceed 4.1 micrograms of cadmium per recommended daily serving (based on the State of California's Prop 65 limit).
- Contain less than 10 micrograms of total arsenic and no more than 5 micrograms of inorganic arsenic per daily serving (EPA and state of New Jersey limits - based on 1 liter of water).
- Meet recommended USP <2040> parameters for disintegration of dietary supplements (excluding capsule, chewable, sublingual and time-release products).
- Be in compliance with FDA labeling requirements.
** The State of California Prop 65. California requires products exceeding this limit to bear a warning label.