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How Products were Selected:

Products were selected to represent those commonly sold and/or available nationally in the U.S. purchased products on the open market through retail stores, on-line retailers, catalogues, or multi-level marketing companies. Products were not accepted directly from manufacturers.

Testing Method:

Products were analyzed for their claimed amounts of individual and total chlorogenic acids including 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-feruloylquinic acid, 4-O-feruloylquinic acid, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid related compounds as well as xanthine alkaloids. All analyses were performed using HPLC methods in an independent laboratory then retested in a second independent laboratory using similar HPLC methods.

Disintegration of non-chewable, non-capsule, non-enteric coated and non-time-release formulations were analyzed utilizing USP (United States Pharmacopeia) <2040> methodology.

Analyses for lead and cadmium were made using Inductively ICP/MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectroscopy) methodology.

Analyses were conducted in independent laboratories to which the brand identities of the products were not disclosed. Any product not passing an initial analysis was retested in a second independent laboratory on at least one of the criteria on which it did not initially pass.

Passing Score: *

To pass testing, a product must meet all of the following criteria:
  1. Contain at least 100% of its labeled amount of total chlorogenic acids or a minimum of 45% (+/- 5% pts).
  2. Meet recommended USP parameters for disintegration of products (excluding capsule, enteric coated, chewable and time-release products).
  3. Not exceed the State of California's Prop 65 limits for lead in supplements in a recommended daily serving: 0.5 mcg of lead per daily serving with an additional allowance of 1.0 mcg for supplements containing 1,000 mg/day or more of elemental calcium and 0.5 mcg for supplements containing specific other minerals**. For supplements not marketed for use by children, provides an additional allowance of 0.5 mcg if containing 250 to 499 mg/day of elemental calcium or 1.0 mcg if containing 500 to 999 mg/day of elemental calcium and an allowance of 0.5 mcg for if containing one whole herb (not extract) ingredient or 1.0 mcg for two or more whole herb ingredients. If a maximum recommended daily serving is not defined, a daily serving size will be determined and applied by CL.
  4. Contain less than 0.3 parts per million (or micrograms per gram) of cadmium for dried raw herb (World Health Organization, Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Material, proposed guidelines, 1998) or less than 0.1 parts per million for extracts. The lower concentration standard for extracts reflects the ability to remove heavy metals such as cadmium during the extraction process.
  5. Meet all FDA labeling requirements
A "Pass" was based on meeting the above criteria in either the first or second round of testing.

* Passing scores allow for specific margins of technical error associated with each analysis. reserves the right to disqualify a product at any time from passing if it considers such product to present a safety risk or to provide misleading or inaccurate label information.

** Based on the State of California's Prop 65 lead limit. California requires supplements exceeding this limit to display a warning label regarding lead.

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