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White Plains, New York, November 6, 2015 — How many beneficial organisms are in probiotic supplements and kefir drinks? Are any contaminated with pathogens, such as E. coli, and do those labeled as "gluten free" or "99% lactose-free" live up to their claims? To find out, recently purchased and tested 40 probiotic supplements (including three for pets) and three widely-sold kefir drinks. The results have been published online in the "Probiotics and Kefirs Review" on and include surprising discoveries about several products.

Probiotic Supplements:

Probiotic supplements contain a variety of potentially helpful bacteria and/or yeasts, typically sold in capsules or small packets. Sales have been strong for these products, reaching $1.4 billion last year in the U.S., up from $527 million five years earlier, according to Nutrition Business Journal. Sales have been driven by studies showing that certain probiotics reduce abdominal pain, lower the chance of developing antibiotic-associated diarrhea, reduce cold symptoms, and improve mood, as described in detail in the Review.'s tests showed that most of the probiotic supplements contained their claimed amounts of viable organisms — typically ranging from one billion to hundreds of billions. However, two products contained less than half of the amounts listed on their labels. In addition, a product for pets provided such a small number of organisms that it would seem unlikely to have any benefit.


These cultured milk beverages (sometimes called "liquid yogurt") have become increasingly popular in the U.S. and can be a major source of probiotic organisms. Like milk, they are rich in calcium and protein and some are fortified with vitamin D. They are also promoted for being easier to tolerate than milk for people with lactose intolerance, presumably due to lower amounts of lactose (milk sugar). tested three major products: Lifeway Lowfat Kefir, Latta Russian Kefir 2% fat, and Evolve Kefir. Each was teeming with live organisms, ranging from 150 billion to 950 billion per cup — far more than found in a serving of most probiotic supplements.

One of the products also claimed to be 99% lactose free, meaning that a one cup serving (about 240 grams) would contain less than 2.4 grams of lactose. However, tests showed that the kefir contained much more lactose than expected -- 8.2 grams, which is about two-thirds the amount in regular milk (about 12 grams). The other two kefirs contained 10.3 grams and 12.7 grams of lactose. Although this contradicts some promotional statements about kefir, it is consistent with other research which has found kefir to be about 4% lactose. Nevertheless, clinical research suggests that people with lactose-intolerance are better able to tolerate lactose from kefir (as well as from yogurt) than from milk. Researchers theorize that enzymes from bacteria in kefir and yogurt are active in the digestive system, breaking down lactose to more digestible glucose and galactose — similar to the effects of a lactase enzyme supplement (see's Lactase Enzymes and Lactose-free Milks Review).

Tests confirmed that all three kefirs were gluten-free and none was contaminated with pathogenic bacteria.

The test results appear online in's "Probiotics and Kefirs Review." The report covers the three kefir drinks noted above and 40 probiotic supplements, including those for women, adults in general, children, and pets. Nineteen of the probiotics were tested through's voluntary Quality Certification Program. Also included in the report are two products similar to one which passed testing but which are sold under different brand names. In addition to the test results, the report includes the clinical evidence regarding probiotics as well as information about dosing, safety, and side-effects — including allergies.

The following probiotic supplements are included in the report: 21st Century High Potency Acidophilus Probiotic Blend, 21st Century Ultra Potency Advanced Probiotic, 365 Everyday Value Probiotic Complex, Align, Bayer Phillips Colon Health, BioGaia ProTectis — Lemon, Cardioviva Natural Health Probiotic, Culturelle, CVS/pharmacy Probiotic Acidophilus, Dr. David Williams Probiotic Advantage, Dr. Mercola Complete Probiotics, Essential Formulas Dr. Ohhira's Probiotics, FloraStor Kids, Garden of Life Primal Defense Ultra, Garden of Life RAW Probiotics Women, GNC Ultra Probiotic Complex 25, GNC Ultra Probiotic Complex 50, GUM PerioBalance, Jamieson Probiotic, Jarrow Formulas Women's Fem Dophilus, Nature Made Digestive Probiotics Daily Balance, Nature's Bounty Ultra Strength Probiotic 10, Nature's Way Primadophilus Children, Nusentia Probiotic Miracle Premium Probiotic Blend for Pets, Nutrition Now PB8, Only Natural Pet Probiotic Blend, ProBioCare Women's Probiotic, Puritan's Pride ProBiotic 10, RepHresh Pro-B, Schiff Digestive Advantage Daily Probiotic, Simply Right [Sam's Club] Acidophilus, Solgar Probi 30 Billion, Spring Valley [Walmart] Acidophilus, The Vitamin Shoppe Ultimate 10 Probiotic, Trunature (Costco) Chewable Probiotic, TwinLab Triple Action Oral Health Dots, UP4 Probiotics with DDS, USANA Probiotic, VetriScience Vetri Probiotic Everyday, Vitamin World Probiotic 10, VSL#3, and Well at Walgreens Super Probiotics.

Founded in 1999, is a leading provider of consumer information and independent evaluations of products that affect health and nutrition. Membership to is available online and provides immediate access to reviews of more than 1,000 products from over 400 brands. The company is privately held and based in Westchester, New York. It has no ownership from, or interest in, companies that manufacture, distribute, or sell consumer products.

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