There are many important considerations when choosing a sunscreen beyond choosing a product with broad-spectrum UVA and UVB protection and the right SPF factor.
Scientists have discovered at least two different compounds in sunscreens that are carcinogens — benzene and benzophenone. Neither of these compounds appear on product labels but may be introduced during product manufacture and/or created by chemical reactions with the sunscreen itself, with more produced over the life of the product!
As discussed below, certain ingredients in sunscreens appear to make a product more likely to contain benzene and/or benzophenone. We have provided several tables showing more than two hundred examples of products that, either through testing or a review of ingredients, may pose some risk or appear to be safer than others. We also discuss whether sunscreens containing "DNA repair enzymes" (found in brands such as ISDIN, Neova, and Priori Skincare) might work better than regular sunscreens, and we compare the UV protection of sunscreen to sun-protection clothing. Sign in as a CL member for details.
Benzene Contamination in Sunscreens
Benzene, which has been linked to blood cancers, was reported in 2021 in a large number of sunscreens and after-sun products that were independently tested. The products included sprays, gels, lotions, and creams. Benzene was found in 43 out of 224 sunscreens and in 8 of 48 after-sun products. The highest average concentrations of benzene (2 ppm to 6 ppm) were found in four sprays. The next highest average concentrations of benzene (0.1 to 1 ppm) were in twelve products that were primarily sprays but included four lotions. After-sun products with the highest concentrations of benzene consisted of four gels and one spray.
In the months after benzene was reported in sunscreens, recalls were undertaken by Coppertone and by Johnson & Johnson (of certain Neutrogena sunscreens and one Aveeno sunscreen). In January 2023, Banana Boat also expanded its recall of products found to contain benzene. Sign in as a CL member to learn if these products have since been discontinued or reformulated and confirmed to have no detectable benzene.
In addition, tests published in 2023 of 50 sunscreen products (purchased in 2021) found that 80% contained benzene, with three containing relatively higher amounts.
FDA guidance suggests that no level of benzene is safe, and it is not permitted in these or other products. A study by Health Canada's Bureau of Chemical Hazards has shown that the application of sunscreen specifically increases the absorption rate of benzene through the skin. Benzene is known to cause cancer in humans according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the World Health Organization, and other regulatory agencies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines benzene as a carcinogen and lists "inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact" as exposure routes.
It is important to note that not all sunscreen products contain benzene and that uncontaminated products are available, should continue to be used, and are important for protecting against potentially harmful solar radiation.
We don't know the source of the benzene for certain, but it is likely to have arisen from other ingredients such as butane, isobutane, or propane, which are propellants in aerosol sprays.
We've included a table that shows which products, out of more than 200 sunscreens, were found to be contaminated with benzene and which were not, as well as which have been recalled. (Note: Even if a product did not contain benzene, it may still contain ingredients that are potentially problematic. See our lists, further below, of sunscreens, facial moisturizers, and lip balms or glosses that are less likely to be problematic -- none of which has been reported to contain benzene).
Sign in as a CL member to view the table.
Benzophenone Contamination in Sunscreens
Experiments conducted by a research team in the U.S. and France, have shown that benzophenone seems to be formed by the degradation of a common sunscreen ingredient, octocrylene. As noted by this team of scientists, "Benzophenone is a mutagen, carcinogen, and endocrine disruptor. Its presence in food products or food packaging is banned in the United States. Under California Proposition 65, there is no safe harbor for benzophenone in any personal care products, including sunscreens, anti-aging creams, and moisturizers." (Downs, Chem Res Tox 2021)
Benzophenone in sunscreens may also help explain why some people have a photoallergic skin reaction to sunscreens containing octocrylene, as suggested by the testing of sunscreens by researchers in Belgium (Foubert, ACS 2020). In addition, benzophenone may also be an environmental hazard — it was originally patented as an herbicide.
In 16 sunscreens that listed octocrylene as the primary ingredient, concentrations of benzophenone ranged from 6 to 186 ppm. These levels more than doubled, on average, after subjecting the products to an accelerated stability experiment (storing them at 104° F for 6 weeks), with amounts ranging from 9.8 to 435 mg/kg, clearly showing that benzophenone was created in octocrylene products. They also showed that a sunscreen that did not list octocrylene had no benzophenone.
The table below summarizes of the findings from French and American researchers, showing the average amount benzophenone found in purchased samples. Keep in mind that this was based on a limited sampling. It is very possible that all products that list octocrylene as a main ingredient will contain benzophenone. It was estimated in 2019 that nearly 3,000 sun products in the U.S. list octocrylene as an ingredient.
Sign in as a CL member to view the table, which includes products from Banana Boat, Coppertone, Neutrogena, Bioderma, Cosmia, Garnier, LaRoche-Posay, L'Oreal, and Uriage.
Benzophenone was also recently detected in sunscreen products labeled as "oxybenzone-free" or "octocrylene-free," including sunscreens that list only zinc oxide or titanium dioxide as active ingredients. Sign in as a CL member for details.
So which sunscreens are safe and effective?
As noted by the American Academy of Dermatology, octocrylene is among a dozen "chemical" sunscreen agents that the FDA has proposed be classified as not generally recognized as safe and effective. The FDA has asked manufacturers to provide more safety information about these compounds. Other common sunscreen compounds in this category are avobenzone, ensulizole, homosalate, octinoxate, octisalate, and oxybenzone. A clinical study in 2020 showed that each of these compounds is absorbed into the body after application in sunscreens, resulting in plasma concentrations that surpassed the FDA threshold for potentially waiving some of the additional safety studies (Matta, JAMA Network 2020).
The only two compounds that the FDA has proposed to be generally recognized as safe and effective as sunscreens are the "mineral" compounds titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. They essentially work by "blocking" ultraviolet radiation, while the chemical sunscreen agents "absorb" radiation. Several studies in people and animals have shown that there is very little absorption of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide into the body when applied to the skin, regardless of the size of the particle (i.e., nanoparticles or larger, microparticles — often marketed as "non-nano") (European Commission 2015; European Commission, 2014). These two compounds are also considered more environmentally safe for swimming near coral reefs — although not when formulated as "nano" particles — than chemicals such as avobenzone and oxybenzone (National Ocean Service, 8-17-2022). Sign in as a CL member to see our table of less problematic sunscreens, which includes a column that notes which of the sunscreen lotions are non-nano. Be aware that nano-sized particles may be unsafe when inhaled (such as when applied as a spray sunscreen), as they are more likely than microparticles to reach the airways of the deep lung, although side effects have not been reported specifically for mineral sunscreen nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the FDA has proposed that, for a sunscreen to be generally recognized as safe and effective, 90% of the particles released from the spray must be at least 10 micrometers in size and the smallest particles must be no less than 5 micrometers. These limits have not yet been approved, and an analysis of 50 spray sunscreens marketed in the U.S. found that 32 had particles smaller than 4 micrometers, although the percentage of total particles in the nano range was very low — less than 0.5%. People concerned about unintended inhalation should opt to use sunscreen lotion instead of spray. If this is not an option, avoid spray application when it is windy, spray sunscreen onto hand and then apply to face (rather than spraying directly onto the face), and hold the container close to the skin (within 4 to 6 inches) (FDA, 2-26-2019).
Although it might seem that higher concentrations of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide would provide better sun protection, that is not always the case. Sign in as a CL member to learn why, and also find out why all sunscreens — including zinc oxide sunscreens — should be reapplied every two hours (or more often if you are swimming or sweating).
Concern has been raised as to whether the use of sunscreen causes a potential risk of reduced vitamin D, but this does not appear to be a significant issue. See the Getting vitamin D from sunlight section of our Vitamin D Supplements Review.
Be aware that laboratory research suggests that mixing otherwise safe mineral-based sunscreen ingredients (e.g., zinc oxide or titanium dioxide) with sunscreen ingredients that are organic compounds (not to be confused with "organically grown" ingredients) can reduce the effectiveness of some of the organic compounds and potentially create toxic compounds when the mixture is exposed to the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight. This was seen in a laboratory experiment that showed that adding zinc oxide (micro- or nano-sized) to a sunscreen formula of organic compounds (avobenzone, octisalate, homosalate, octocrylene, and oxybenzone) and exposed to a solar simulator (comparable to sunlight exposure) for two hours, caused the formula to lose 80% of its UV-A filter protection. Interestingly UV-B protection was not affected, nor was short-wave UV-A, but long-wave UV-A was nearly completely eliminated. As the lost UV-A protection had been provided mainly by avobenzone, it was concluded that this ingredient was most susceptible to degradation. The degraded mixture also exhibited higher levels of toxicity in a laboratory assay (Ginzburg, Photochem Photobio Sci 2021). The take home message: Avoid sunscreens that mix otherwise safe mineral-based ingredients (zinc oxide or titanium dioxide) with organic chemical formulas, particularly those with avobenzone.
Sunscreens containing octocrylene may cause skin redness and inflammation upon exposure to sunlight in about 4% of people. This was reported, for example, in a 75-year-old woman who developed extensive red, shedding, crusty and itchy patches on the skin of her face, neck, and the backs of her hands and forearms during the summer. She had been applying a popular SPF50+ sunscreen (not named) and skin moisturizer to the affected areas. Based on patch testing, it was determined that the condition resulted from octocrylene-induced photocontact dermatitis. The reporting physicians noted that this reaction to octocrylene is more common among people already photosensitized to ketoprofen (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). It should be noted that contact allergy to octocrylene without sun exposure can also occur, but only in about 0.7% of people (Fidanzi, Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2022).
It should be noted that testing by Consumer Reports has suggested that water-resistant sunscreens containing zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are not as effective as products made with chemical ingredients, although some provide "adequate" protection. A possible reason for this outcome may relate to how Consumer Reports conducts its tests, which initially involves application of sunscreens to the backs of individuals who then soak in water. Areas of the back are then exposed to different intensities of UV light and, a day later, the skin is examined for redness to determine SPF ratings. It is possible that this soaking is more likely to remove mineral sunscreens than chemical sunscreens, while chemical sunscreens may be more likely to remain on the skin or, possibly, be absorbed into the skin. (This absorption, however, is a potential safety concern, as noted earlier.) Consumer Reports separately tests for UVA protection by determining the amount UVA and UVB absorbed by sunscreen after passing UV light through plastic plates on which each sunscreen has been smeared. Note: None of the sunscreens that Consumer Reports selected as best are among those in which benzene has been reported.
Be aware that the active ingredients in mineral sunscreens may be more likely to separate than those in chemical sunscreens, making it important to shake mineral sunscreens in liquid form before applying them.
The table in our full article lists mineral-based sunscreens that we've identified that do not contain avobenzone, octisalate, homosalate, octocrylene, or oxybenzone. In addition, none of these products have been reported to contain the carcinogens benzene or benzophenone. They provide broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB radiation. The products vary in price and size, but can cost as little as $3.00 per ounce, or as much as $22.00 per ounce, as shown in the last column.
Sign in as a CL member to view the table, which includes products from All Good, Badger, CeraVe, CopperTone, EltaMD, Hello Bello, Kokua, Mama Kuleana, La Roche-Posay, MDSolarSciences, Native, Neutrogena, Pipette, Stream2Sea, Thinksport, and Waxhead. Also, find out why some sunscreen ingredients are approved in Europe but not the U.S., and learn the pros and cons of these ingredients.
Facial Moisturizers and Lip Balms and Glosses with Sunscreen
The tables in our full article list facial moisturizers, as well as lip balms and glosses, with sunscreens. In the first table, products in the first group are potentially problematic as they contain octocrylene (which can form benzophenone) or sunscreen compounds not recognized as safe by the FDA (avobenzone, octisalate, homosalate, octocrylene, or oxybenzone). Products in the second group, and lip balms and glosses in the second table, contain only mineral sunscreen ingredients that have been recognized as safe and effective by the FDA.
Be aware that some of the lip balms listed in the table below may contain nanoparticles of zinc oxide or titanium dioxide. There is some concern that nanoparticles of zinc oxide or titanium oxide may be unsafe if ingested, but this has not been conclusively demonstrated. Evidence from animal studies has shown conflicting results (McClements, NPJ Sci Food 2017). Furthermore, a study among adults showed that, even when titanium dioxide was intentionally consumed in a drink, less than 0.1% was absorbed, regardless of particle size (Jones, Toxicol Lett 2015). Nevertheless, if you wish to avoid lip balms with nanoparticles, we've identified several "non-nano" products in our table of lip balms and glosses with safe sunscreen ingredients.
Sign in as a CL member to view the table, which includes products from Aveeno, Badger, BareMinerals, Burt's Bees, CeraVe, Cetaphil, Colorscience, eos, Good Skin, Hello, jane iredale, Kiehl's, L'Oreal, Mineral Fusion, Neutrogena, and Olay Regenerist, Sun Bum, Thinksport, Vanicream, and Waxhead.