L-carnosine, also called beta-alanyl-L-histidine, is a naturally occurring protein found in the brain and muscles. It can be obtained from meat sources (such as chicken or beef) or as a synthetic form in supplements (Roy Chengappa, Schizophr Res 2012).
Don't confuse L-carnosine with L-carnitine, which has been evaluated for different conditions (and is discussed within our Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplements Review).
L-carnosine supplementation has been investigated for various conditions, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, diabetes and related complications, heart failure, and Alzheimer's disease. L-carnosine showed modest benefit for some, but not all, of these conditions, although all of the studies to date have been small and short-term.
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