How Products Were Selected:Products tested represent those commonly sold and/or available in the U.S. ConsumerLab.com purchased products on the open market through retail stores, on-line retailers, and direct sales companies. Products were not accepted directly from manufacturers.
- Quantification of coumarin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
- Identification and quantification of procyanidins (PACs) as a predefined molecular degree of polymerization (DP) of 1-7 (which includes the soluble flavanol monomers catechin and epicatechin that are DP1) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology (applies only to supplements).
- Quantitative analyses for lead, arsenic and cadmium by ICP-MS or other appropriate methods determined by CL.
- Salmonella contamination using the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) and AOAC methodologies (does not apply to extracts).
- Filth in spices as per AOAC method 968.38, Light filth testing in ground cinnamon (applies only to spices).
- Disintegration of non-chewable, non-capsule and non-time-release formulations using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) <2040> methodology.
ConsumerLab.com may modify or use other appropriate test methods if necessary to test special product formulations.
The Identities of products were not disclosed to laboratories performing the testing.
For this review the amount of coumarin found for each product is reported in the results table.
To achieve a "Pass" in the testing, a product had to:
- Meet 100% of its label claim and no more than 120% for the amount of soluble PAC's DP 1-7. The amount of soluble PACs DP 1-7 is reported for each product.
- Coumarin: A cassia cinnamon product may not contain more than 7 mg of coumarin per daily serving (or 3.5 mg if specifically marketed for children). A Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) product may not contain more than 1 mg of coumarin per daily serving.
- Heavy Metals: Products containing whole herbs and/or more than 250 mg of minerals per daily dose must not exceed specific limits for lead, arsenic and cadmium. Lead**: Not exceed the following limits for elemental lead:
- Products marketed for use by children may not exceed the State of California's Prop 65 limits for lead in dietary supplements of 0.5 mcg per recommended daily serving with an additional allowance of 0.8 mcg if the product contains more than 1,000 mg/day of calcium.
- Products with a single serving weights of less than 5 grams which are not marketed for use by children, may not exceed the State of California's Prop 65 limits for lead in dietary supplements of 0.5 mcg per recommended daily serving with an additional allowance of 0.4 mcg if containing 250-999 mg/day of any combination of elemental calcium, magnesium and potassium or 0.8 mcg if containing more than 1,000 mg/day of any combination of these minerals. An additional allowance of 0.5 mcg is provided if containing 250-999 mg/day of whole herb (not extract) or 1.0 mcg if containing 1000 mg/day or more of whole herb (not extract). However, total lead allowance will not exceed 2 mcg.
- Products with single serving weights of 5 grams or more which are not marketed for children may not exceed 2.5 mcg per serving nor 4.0 mcg per daily serving.
- If marketed for use by children, may not exceed 3.0 micrograms of cadmium per recommended daily serving (based on Canada's limit for a child weighing 75 lbs.). If not marketed for use by children, may not exceed 4.1 micrograms of cadmium per recommended daily serving (based on the State of California's Prop 65 limit).
- Contain less than 10 micrograms of total arsenic and no more than 5 micrograms of inorganic arsenic per daily serving (EPA and state of New Jersey limits - based on 1 liter of water).
** The State of California's Prop 65 limit. California requires supplements exceeding this limit to bear a warning label.