Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Vitamins and Minerals

Learn Your Daily Nutritional Requirement for Each Vitamin and Nutrient

What is the right amount of a vitamin or mineral to get each day? To help you, below are recommended intake levels for selected nutrients based on RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances) from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences. In cases where no RDA is established, the IOM has developed AIs (Adequate Intake) levels, which are shown. The RDA and AI values are essentially the daily dose you need of each nutrient from the foods in your diet and, if necessary, supplementation.

Is it possible to get too much of a vitamin or mineral? Yes. For this reason, ULs (Upper Tolerable Intake Levels) are also set by the IOM and are provided below. There is an increased risk of an adverse event when exceeding the UL - although sometimes these risks are acceptable when the nutrient is used in medical treatment, such as to treat a severe deficiency.

Why do DV (Daily Value) figures on food and supplement labels not coincide with the RDAs and AIs? The DVs are set by the FDA, while the RDAs are set by the IOM (as mentioned above). From 1968 until July 2016, the DVs often did not reflect the latest intake recommendations from the IOM, nor did they distinguish needs by age and gender. In July 2016, the FDA updated many of the DVs, more closely reflecting the RDAs and adding DVs specifically for infants, children 1 to 3 years of age, and pregnant/lactating women. The DVs are shown in green at the bottom of each table below. (Note: The FDA initially gave large manufacturers and small manufacturers until July of 2018 and 2019, respectively, to update their labels with the new DVs. However, in September 2017, it extended these deadlines to January 1 of 2020 and 2021, respectively. Until then, the old DVs may still appear.)

ConsumerLab.com has full reports on each of these nutrients which include independent tests and reviews of brands of vitamin and supplement products. You can access these ConsumerLab.com (CL) reports using the links below. Also, see our reports on Multivitamins, and reports on other nutrients and popular supplements.

Click on a Nutrient
Vitamins
B Vitamins
B Vitamins
(cont'd)
Minerals
Minerals
(cont'd)
Minerals
(cont'd)
Vitamin A Biotin Riboflavin Calcium Iron Potassium
Vitamin C Choline Thiamin Chromium Magnesium Selenium
Vitamin D Folate Vitamin B-6 Copper Manganese Zinc
Vitamin E Niacin Vitamin B-12 Fluoride Molybdenum  
Vitamin K Pantothenic Acid   Iodine Phosphorus  


ConsumerLab's Dr. Tod Cooperman explains why labels on many vitamin and mineral supplements are outdated and wrong and why you should use the information on this page to find your daily nutritional requirements.



Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Common Nutrients
Age Vitamin A

See Report
Folate
(Vitamin B-9)
See Report
Vitamin C

See Report
Vitamin D

See Report
Calcium

See Report
Iron

See Report
RDA1 Upper Limit2 RDA3 Upper Limit4 RDA Upper Limit RDA5 Upper Limit RDA Upper Limit RDA Upper Limit
1 - 3 300 mcg
(RAE)
600 mcg
(RAE)
150 mcg
(DFE)7
300 mcg
(DFE)7
15 mg 400 mg 15 mcg5
(600 IU)
62.5 mcg5
(2,500 IU)
700
mg
2,500 mg 7 mg 40 mg
4 - 8 400 mcg
(RAE)
900 mcg
(RAE)
200 mcg
(DFE)7
400 mcg
(DFE)7
25 mg 650 mg 15 mcg5
(600 IU)
75 mcg5
(3,000 IU)
1,000 mg 2,500 mg 10 mg 40 mg
9 - 13 600 mcg
(RAE)
1,700 mcg
(RAE)
300 mcg
(DFE)7
600 mcg
(DFE)7
45 mg 1,200 mg 15 mcg5
(600 IU)
100 mcg5
(4,000 IU)
1,300 mg 3,000 mg 8 mg 40 mg
14 - 18 900 mcg (m)
700 mcg (f)
(RAE)
2,800 mcg
(RAE)
400 mcg
(DFE)7
800 mcg
(DFE)7
75 mg (m)
65 mg (f)
80 mg (preg)
115 mg (lact)
1,800 mg 15 mcg5
(600 IU)
100 mcg5
(4,000 IU)
1,300 mg 3,000 mg 11 mg (m)
15 mg (f)
27 mg (preg)
10 mg (lact)
45 mg
Adult 900 mcg (m)
700 mcg (f)
(RAE)
3,000 mcg
(RAE)
400 mcg
600 mcg (preg)/
500 mcg (lact)
(DFE)7
1,000 mcg
(DFE)7
90 mg (m)
75 mg (f)
85 mg (preg)
120 mg (lact)
2,000 mg 15 mcg5
(600 IU)
(51- 70 years)
20 mcg5
(800 IU)
(71+ years)
100 mcg5
(4,000 IU)
1,000 mg (f to 50 years and m to 70)
1,200 mg (f 51+ years and m and f 71+)
2,500 mg (to 50 years)
2,000 mg (51+ years)
8 mg (m)
18 mg (f 19 to 50 years)
8 mg (f 51+ years)
27 mg (preg)
9 mg (lact)
45 mg
DV:  
0 - 12 mo. 500 mcg
(RAE)6
80 mcg
(DFE)7
50 mg 10 mcg5
(400 IU)
260 mg 11 mg
1 -3 300 mcg
(RAE)6
150 mcg
(DFE)7
15 mg 15 mcg5
(600 IU)
700 mg 7 mg
Preg/Lact 1,300 mcg
(RAE)6
600 mcg
(DFE)7
120 mg 15 mcg5
(600 IU)
1,300 mg 27 mg
4 & Older 900 mcg
(RAE)6
400 mcg
(DFE)7
90 mg 20 mcg5
(800 IU)
1,300 mg 18 mg
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes From the National Academies (Figures for infants also available.); Daily Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels 2016.
Abbreviations: f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m - male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 Figures for vitamin A are expressed in mcg RAE (see footnote 6) rather than IU (International Units) which is an older unit of measurement. 1 IU = 0.3 mcg RAE, such that 900 mcg RAE equals 3,000 IU. Newer labels show values in mcg RAE (also shown as simply mcg of vitamin A). Older-style labels show values in IU.
2 UL for vitamin A applies only to retinol forms, not beta-carotene.
3 Folate from supplements and fortified foods is absorbed about twice as well as from regular food if taken on an empty stomach and about 170% as well if taken with food.. If using supplements or fortified foods containing synthetic folate (such as folic acid) as your source, then only half the listed amount is required -- unless already labeled in DFE (Dietary Folate Equivalent).
4 UL for folate applies only to supplements and fortified foods, not regular foods.
5 Figures may also be expressed in IU (International Units). (1 mcg =40 IU) but labels are now required to show values as mcg.
6 RAE = Retinol activity equivalents; 1 microgram RAE = 1 microgram retinol, 2 microgram supplemental β- carotene, 12 micrograms dietary β-carotene, 24 micrograms α-carotene, or 24 micrograms β-cryptoxanthin (FDA 2016)
7 DFE = Dietary Folate Equivalent; 1 DFE = 1 mcg naturally-occurring folate = 0.6 mcg folic acid taken with food = 0.5 mcg folic acid taken on an empty stomach. Until all labels are updated to reflect the latest rules (which may be as late as 2019), be aware that a product listing 400 mcg of synthetic folate, such as folic acid, actually provides about 667 mcg to 800 mcg DFE, or around twice the adult requirement and close to the adult upper limit (UL). Old labeling will show this to be "100%" of the DV, while it is actually closer to 167% to 200% of the DV.

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age Vitamin E

See Report
Vitamin K

See Report
Thiamin

See Report
Riboflavin

See Report
Niacin

See Report
Vitamin B6

See Report
RDA1
S = Synthetic
N = Natural
Upper Limit2 Ade-
quate
Intake3
Upper Limit4 RDA Upper Limit5 RDA Upper Limit6 RDA Upper Limit2 RDA Upper Limit
1 - 3 13 IU
(S)
9 IU
(N)
220 IU
(S)
300 IU
(N)
30 mcg NE 0.5 mg NE 0.5 mg NE 6 mg 10 mg 0.5 mg 30 mg
4 - 8 16 IU
(S)
10 IU
(N)
330 IU
(S)
450 IU
(N)
55 mcg NE 0.6 mg NE 0.6 mg NE 8 mg 15 mg 0.6 mg 40 mg
9 - 13 24 IU
(S)
16 IU
(N)
660 IU
(S)
900 IU
(N)
60 mcg NE 0.9 mg NE 0.9 mg NE 12 mg 20 mg 1.0 mg 60 mg
14 - 18 33 IU
(S)
22 IU
(N)
880 IU
(S)
1,200 IU
(N)
75 mcg NE 1.2 mg (m)
1 mg (f)
NE 1.3 mg (m)
1 mg (f)
NE 16 mg (m)
14 mg (f)
30 mg 1.3 mg (m)
1.2 mg (f)
80 mg
Adult 33 IU
(S)
22 IU
(N)
1,100 IU
(S)
1,500 IU
(N)
120 mcg (m)
90 mcg (f)
NE 1.2 mg (m)
1.1 mg (f)
1.4 mg (preg and lact)
NE 1.3 mg (m)
1.1 mg (f)
1.4 mg (preg)
1.6 mg (lact)
NE 16 mg (m)
14 mg (f)
18 mg (preg)
17 mg (lact)
35 mg 1.3 mg (m 19 to 50 years)
1.7 mg (m 51+ years)
1.3 mg (f 19 to 50 years)
1.5 mg (f 51+ years)
1.9 mg (preg)
2.0 mg (lact)
100 mg
DV:  
0 - 12 mo. 5 mg7
(7.5 IU)8
2.5 mcg 0.3 mg 0.4 mg 4 mg (NE)9 0.3 mg
1 - 3 6 mg7
(9 IU)8
30 mcg 0.5 mg 0.5 mg 6 mg (NE)9 0.5 mg
Preg/Lact 19 mg7
(28.5 IU)8
90 mcg 1.4 mg 1.6 mg 18 mg (NE)9 2.0 mg
4 & Older 15 mg7
(22.5 IU)8
120 mcg 1.2 mg 1.3 mg 16 mg (NE)9 1.7 mg
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes From the National Academies (Figures for infants also available.); Daily Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels 2016.
Abbreviations: NE - not established; f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m - male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 Vitamin E amounts may also be expressed in milligrams (mg). For those amounts, see the Vitamin E Report.
2 The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.
3 RDA not established for vitamin K. Figures based on AI.
4 ULs are not established for vitamin K.
5 ULs are not established for thiamin.
6 ULs are not established for riboflavin.
7 1 mg α-tocopherol (label claim) = 1 mg α-tocopherol = 1 mg RRR- α-tocopherol = 2 mg all rac-α-tocopherol (FDA 2016)
8 (As α-tocopherol) 1 mg α-tocopherol = 1.5 IU
9 NE = Niacin equivalents, 1 mg NE = 1 mg niacin = 60 milligrams tryptophan. (FDA 2016)

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age Vitamin B-12

See Report
Pantothenic Acid

See Report
Biotin

See Report
Choline

See Report
Chromium

See Report
Copper
RDA Upper Limit2 Ade-
quate
Intake3
Upper Limit4 Ade-
quate
Intake5
Upper Limit6 Ade-
quate
Intake7
Upper Limit Ade-
quate
Intake8
Upper Limit9 RDA Upper Limit
1 - 3 0.9 mcg NE 2 mg NE 8 mcg NE 200 mg 1 g 11 mcg NE 340 mcg 1,000 mcg
4 - 8 1.2 mcg NE 3 mg NE 12 mcg NE 250 mg 1 g 15 mcg NE 440 mcg 3,000 mcg
9 - 13 1.8 mcg NE 4 mg NE 20 mcg NE 375 mg 2 g 25 mcg (m)
21 mcg (f)
NE 700 mcg 5,000 mcg
14 - 18 2.4 mcg NE 5 mg NE 25 mcg NE 550 mg (m)
400 mg (f)
3 g 35 mcg (m)
24 mcg (f)
29 mcg (preg)
44 mcg (lact)
NE 890 mcg
1,000 mcg (preg)
1,300 mcg (lact)
8,000 mcg
Adult 2.4 mcg1
2.6 mcg (preg)
2.8 mcg(lact)
NE 5 mg
6 mg (preg)
7 mg (lact)
NE 30 mcg
35 mcg (lact)
NE 550 mg (m)
425 mg (f)
450 mg (preg)
550 mg (lact)
3.5 g 35 mcg (m 19 to 50 years)
25 mcg (f 19 to 50 years)
30 mcg (m 50+ years)
20 mcg (f 50+ years)
30 mcg (preg)
45 mcg (lact)
NE 900 mcg
1,000 mcg (preg)
1,300 mcg (lact)
10,000 mcg
DV:  
0 - 12 mo. 0.5 mcg 1.8 mg 6 mcg 150 mg 5.5 mcg 0.2 mg
1 - 3 0.9 mcg 2 mg 8 mcg 200 mg 11 mcg 0.3 mg
Preg/Lact 2.8 mcg 7 mg 35 mcg 550 mg 45 mcg 1.3 mg
4 & Older 2.4 mcg 5 mg 30 mcg 550 mg 35 mcg 0.9 mg
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes From the National Academies (Figures for infants also available.); Daily Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels 2016.
Abbreviations: NE - not established; f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m - male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 Because 10% to 30% of older people may malabsorb food bound vitamin B-12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods with vitamin B12 or a supplement containing vitamin B12.
2 ULs are not established for vitamin B-12.
3 RDA not established for pantothenic acid
4 ULs are not established for pantothenic acid.
5 RDA not established for biotin
6 ULs not established for biotin.
7 RDA not established for choline. Choline is technically not a vitamin, but is often listed with B vitamins.
8 RDA not established for chromium.
9 ULs not established for chromium.

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age Fluoride Iodine

See Kelp and KI Reports
Magnesium

See Report
Manganese Molybdenum Phosphorus
Ade-
quate
Intake1
Upper Limit RDA Upper Limit RDA Upper Limit2 Ade-
quate
Intake3
Upper Limit RDA Upper Limit RDA Upper Limit
1 - 3 0.7 mg 1.3 mg 90 mcg 200 mcg 80 mg 65 mg 1.2 mg 2 mg 17 mcg 300 mcg 460 mg 3 g
4 - 8 1 mg 2.2 mg 90 mcg 300 mcg 130 mg 110 mg 1.5 mg 3 mg 22 mcg 600 mcg 500 mg 3 g
9 - 13 2 mg 10 mg 120 mcg 600 mcg 240 mg 350 mg 1.9 mg (m)
1.6 mg (f)
6 mg 34 mcg 1,100 mcg 1,250 mg 4 g
14 - 18 3 mg 10 mg 150 mcg 900 mcg 410 mg (m)
360 mg (f)
400 mg (preg)
360 mg (lact)
350 mg 2.2 mg (m)
1.6 mg (f)
9 mg 43 mcg 1,700 mcg 1,250 mg 4 g
3.5 g (preg)
4 g
(lact)
Adult 4 mg (m)
3 mg (f)
10 mg 150 mcg
220 mcg (preg)
290 mcg (lact)
1,100 mcg 400 mg (m 19 to 30 years)
420 mg (m 30+ years)
310 mg (f 19 to 30 years)
350 mg (preg 19 to 30 years)
310 mg (lact 19 to 30 years)
320 mg (f 30+ years)
360 mg (preg 30+ years)
320 mg (lact 30+ years)
350 mg 2.3 mg (m)
1.8 mg (f)
2 mg (preg)
2.6 mg (lact)
11 mg 45 mcg
50 mcg (preg and lact)
2,000 mcg 700
mg
4 g
(19 to 70 years)
3 g
(70+ years)
DV:  
0 - 12 mo. 130 mcg 75 mg 0.6 mg 3 mcg 275 mg
1 - 3 90 mcg 80 mg 1.2 mg 17 mcg 460 mg
Preg/Lact 290 mcg 400 mg 2.6 mg 50 mcg 1,250 mg
4 & Older 150 mcg 420 mg 2.3 mg 45 mcg 1,250 mg
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes From the National Academies (Figures for infants also available.); Daily Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels 2016.
Abbreviations: f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m - male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 RDA not established for fluoride
2 The UL's for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacologic agent only and do not include intake from food and water.
3 RDA not established for manganese.

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional Nutrients (Continued)
Age Potassium

See Report
Selenium

See Report
Zinc

See Report
Adequate Intake1 Upper Limit2 RDA Upper Limit RDA Upper Limit
1 - 3 3.0 g NE 20 mcg 90 mcg 3 mg 7 mg
4 - 8 3.8 g NE 30 mcg 150 mcg 5 mg 12 mg
9 - 13 4.5 g NE 40 mcg 280 mcg 8 mg 23 mg
14 - 18 4.7 g NE 55 mcg 400 mcg 11 mg (m)
9 mg (f)
12 mg (preg)
13 mg (lact)
34 mg
Adult 4.7 g
5.1 g (lact)
NE 55 mcg
60 mcg (preg)
70 mcg (lact)
400 mcg 11 mg (m)
8 mg (f)
11 mg (preg)
12 mg (lact)
40 mg
DV:  
0 - 12 mo. 700 mg 20 mcg 3 mg
1 - 3 3,000 mg 20 mcg 3 mg
Preg/Lact 5,100 mg 70 mcg 13 mg
4 & Older 4,700 mg 55 mcg 11 mg
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes From the National Academies (Figures for infants also available.); Daily Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels 2016.
Abbreviations: NE - not established; f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m - male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1 RDA not established for potassium.
2 ULs are not established for potassium.


 

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