Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Vitamin and Minerals

Learn Your Daily Nutritional Requirement for Each Vitamin and Nutrient

The table below provides the daily intakes of vitamins and minerals by age, gender, and life stage based on the latest Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs), as well as Upper Tolerable Intake Levels (ULs) developed by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
What are RDAs? 
What is the difference between an RDA and AI? 
Is it possible to get too much of a vitamin or mineral? 
What is a DV and why don't DVs always match the RDAs and AIs? 

Vitamin & Mineral Requirements, Upper Limits, and Daily Values
Nutrient:
Age:
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Sources: 
Abbreviations/Footnotes:
* - Adequate Intake (AI)
mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram)
mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
NE - DV not established
ND - UL not determined
m - male; f - female
lact - lactating (breast feeding); preg - pregnant
Age ranges are in years

Get additional information about each nutrient, including ConsumerLab's independent tests and reviews of supplements, using the "Report" links above. Also, see reports on Multivitamins and other popular supplements.


ConsumerLab's Dr. Tod Cooperman explains why labels on many vitamin and mineral supplements are outdated and wrong and why you should use the information on this page to find your daily nutritional requirements.


The information on this page was last updated on 3/27/2019.

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Additional Information
DFE = Dietary Folate Equivalent; 1 DFE = 1 mcg naturally-occurring folate = 0.6 mcg folic acid taken with food = 0.5 mcg folic acid taken on an empty stomach. Until all labels are updated to reflect the latest rules (which may be as late as January 2021), be aware that a product listing 400 mcg of synthetic folate, such as folic acid, actually provides about 667 mcg to 800 mcg DFE, or around twice the adult requirement and close to the adult upper limit (UL). Old labeling will show this to be 100% of the DV, while it is actually closer to 167% to 200% of the DV.
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Additional Information
AIs established for potassium in 2005 were reduced in 2019 due to a change in approach, focusing specifically on nutritional adequacy. Higher intakes may reduce high blood pressure for some, but evidence is insufficient to establish intakes for that purpose. ULs are not established for potassium, but caution against high intakes is warranted, particularly for people with, or at risk of, compromised kidney function.
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Additional Information
Figures for vitamin A are expressed in mcg RAE (retinol activity equivalents) rather than IU (International Units), an older unit of measurement. 1 IU = 0.3 mcg RAE, such that 3,000 IU = 900 mcg RAE. Newer labels show values in mcg RAE or simply as mcg of vitamin A. 1 microgram RAE = 1 microgram retinol, 2 microgram supplemental β- carotene, 12 micrograms dietary β-carotene, 24 micrograms α-carotene, or 24 micrograms β-cryptoxanthin (FDA 2016). UL for vitamin A applies only to retinol forms, not beta-carotene.
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Additional Information
Due to reduced absorption, those older than 50 years are advised to meet their RDA mainly by consuming supplements with B12 or foods fortified with B12.
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Additional Information
Older labels may use IU (International Units). 1 mcg = 40 IU.
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Additional Information
1 mg α-tocopherol = 1 mg RRR- α-tocopherol = 2 mg all rac-α-tocopherol (FDA 2016). UL includes all supplemental forms of α-tocopherol.
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Additional Information
Figures for vitamin A are expressed in mcg RAE (see footnote 6) rather than IU (International Units) which is an older unit of measurement. 1 IU = 0.3 mcg RAE, such that 900 mcg RAE equals 3,000 IU. Newer labels show values in mcg RAE (also shown as simply mcg of vitamin A). Older-style labels show values in IU.
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Additional Information
UL for vitamin A applies only to retinol forms, not beta-carotene.
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Additional Information
Folate from supplements and fortified foods is absorbed about twice as well as from regular food if taken on an empty stomach and about 170% as well if taken with food.. If using supplements or fortified foods containing synthetic folate (such as folic acid) as your source, then only half the listed amount is required -- unless already labeled in DFE (Dietary Folate Equivalent).
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Additional Information
The UL for folate applies only to synthetic forms, such as folic acid as well as methylfolate, which are the typical forms in supplements and fortified foods. It does not apply to folate naturally found in foods.
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Additional Information
Figures may also be expressed in IU (International Units). (1 mcg =40 IU) but labels are now required to show values as mcg.
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Additional Information
RAE = Retinol activity equivalents; 1 microgram RAE = 1 microgram retinol, 2 microgram supplemental β- carotene, 12 micrograms dietary β-carotene, 24 micrograms α-carotene, or 24 micrograms β-cryptoxanthin (FDA 2016)
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Additional Information
DFE = Dietary Folate Equivalent; 1 DFE = 1 mcg naturally-occurring folate = 0.6 mcg folic acid taken with food = 0.5 mcg folic acid taken on an empty stomach. Until all labels are updated to reflect the latest rules (which may be as late as January 2021), be aware that a product listing 400 mcg of synthetic folate, such as folic acid, actually provides about 667 mcg to 800 mcg DFE, or around twice the adult requirement and close to the adult upper limit (UL). Old labeling will show this to be "100%" of the DV, while it is actually closer to 167% to 200% of the DV.
Close
Additional Information
Folate from supplements and fortified foods is absorbed about twice as well as from regular food if taken on an empty stomach and about 170% as well if taken with food. If using supplements or fortified foods containing synthetic folate (such as folic acid) as your source, then only half the listed amount is required -- unless already labeled in DFE (Dietary Folate Equivalent).

DFE = Dietary Folate Equivalent; 1 DFE = 1 mcg naturally-occurring folate = 0.6 mcg folic acid taken with food = 0.5 mcg folic acid taken on an empty stomach. Until all labels are updated to reflect the latest rules (which may be as late as January 2021), be aware that a product listing 400 mcg of synthetic folate, such as folic acid, actually provides about 667 mcg to 800 mcg DFE, or around twice the adult requirement and close to the adult upper limit (UL). Old labeling will show this to be "100%" of the DV, while it is actually closer to 167% to 200% of the DV.
Close
Additional Information
UL for folate applies only to supplements and fortified foods, not regular foods.

DFE = Dietary Folate Equivalent; 1 DFE = 1 mcg naturally-occurring folate = 0.6 mcg folic acid taken with food = 0.5 mcg folic acid taken on an empty stomach. Until all labels are updated to reflect the latest rules (which may be as late as January 2021), be aware that a product listing 400 mcg of synthetic folate, such as folic acid, actually provides about 667 mcg to 800 mcg DFE, or around twice the adult requirement and close to the adult upper limit (UL). Old labeling will show this to be "100%" of the DV, while it is actually closer to 167% to 200% of the DV.
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Additional Information
The UL for folate applies only to that consumed from synthetic forms in supplements and fortified foods.
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Additional Information
The UL for niacin applies only to that consumed from supplements and fortified foods.
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Additional Information
The UL for magnesium applies only to that consumed from supplements and fortified foods.
 

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