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Fish Oil vs. Cod Liver Oil -- bottle of cod liver oil pouring into spoon

Fish Oil vs. Cod Liver Oil

Question:
What is the difference between fish oil and cod liver oil? Is one better than the other?

Answer:
Regular fish oil is pressed from the whole body of the fish, while cod liver oil is pressed from the liver of the fish. Both can be good sources of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, but cod liver oil contains substantial, and in some cases, excessive amounts of vitamin A, as well as a good amount of vitamin D, which are not generally found in regular fish oil supplements. One type of oil is not necessarily better than the other, but which one you choose should be based on your nutritional needs and your reason for taking it.

Be aware that some "vitamin A" supplements that list cod or other fish as ingredients do not contain the omega-3s and vitamin D found in true cod liver oil.

Getting omega-3s
A typical recommended daily serving from either a fish oil or cod liver oil supplement can easily provide the daily intakes of EPA and DHA recommended by some countries (300 mg to 500 mg combined) and, if taken every day, slightly more than the amount provided by the American Heart Association's recommendation of one to two servings per week of fatty fish, such as tuna or salmon.

However, if you need higher, therapeutic doses of EPA and DHA (thousands of milligrams of EPA and DHA combined, as taken for lowering triglycerides, treating ulcerative colitis, depression or other conditions), fish oil supplements are a better choice. This is because the amount of cod liver oil you would need to consume in order to get these higher amounts of DHA and EPA will typically include excessive amounts of vitamin A. (See the Fish Oil Supplements Review for information about highly concentrated supplements that are similar to prescription fish oils, as well as our Top Picks among products).

Vitamins A & D
The amounts of vitamin A in the retinol form found in several cod liver oils tested by ConsumerLab have exceeded the daily requirements for adults, and exceeded daily upper tolerable intake levels for children and/or adolescents, above which there is a risk of adverse events. That being said, ConsumerLab has also identified products that contains lower amounts of vitamin A with a relatively high dose of EPA and DHA combined.

As to vitamin D, cod liver oils tested by ConsumerLab have tended to provide about 400 IU (10 mcg) of vitamin D per daily serving -- a good portion of the recommended daily intake of vitamin D for adults. Cod liver oil may be a good option for those who want to increase their intake of omega-3s but do not get enough vitamin D from their diets or sun exposure. (See our Top Picks among cod liver oils).

Learn more about fish oil and cod liver oil:



Is fish oil safe? Is it contaminated with mercury and PCBs? >>

Lovaza, a prescription omega-3 fish oil, is very expensive. Can I get the same omega-3 oils from a supplement that costs less? >>

The suggested daily serving for my fish oil supplement, three 1,000 mg softgels, seems like a lot. Do I really need to take this much? >>

Is it safe to consume fish oil as a long-term food supplement? >>

How does the new prescription fish oil Epanova compare to Lovaza --and fish oil supplements? >>

Are there any red flags to look for on the label when choosing a fish oil supplement? >>

What is fermented cod liver oil, such as Blue Ice? Is it better than regular cod liver oil? >>

I am very concerned about getting too much vitamin A. Is there danger in getting too much vitamin A if I take fish oil, which I've heard contains a lot of vitamin A, in addition to my multivitamin? >>

Coromega Max claims it is uniquely emulsified to provide 300% better absorption than standard fish oil softgels. Is this true? It's more expensive than many fish oils but could potentially provide better overall value.  >>

Is it okay to take vitamin D3 and fish oil together?  >>

See other recent and popular questions >>
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This CL Answer initially posted on 2/8/2019.
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