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CL Answer

Do any supplements or foods help with brain function, like memory and cognition?

Find out which supplements help improve memory, brain function and cognition, including fish oil, some B vitamins, cocoa, and curcumin. ConsumerLab's answer explains the evidence for supplements promoted to help with brain function and cognition.

Supplements for Memory -- doctor holding a model of a brain and fish oil capsule

CL Answer

Do magnesium supplements, like Magtein, help memory or protect against Alzheimer's disease?

Magtein, and other magnesium supplements, may help memory and protect against Alzheimer's disease.

CL Answer

Does Procera AVH really improve memory and mood?

Procera AVH information, including evidence from clinical studies on memory, cognition, mood, safety, and a lawsuit.

CL Answer

Now that it was shown that Ginkgo biloba is not an effective memory enhancer, are there any other health enhancing benefits from taking it, and, if so, what dose should one take daily?

Find out what Ginkgo Biloba can and can't do. Find out the health benefits and correct daily dosage.

Gingko Biloba Leaves and Supplements

Product Review

Low-Dose Lithium Supplements Review

Choose the Best Low-Dose Lithium Supplement. CL Tests Reveal Which Low-Dose Lithium Supplements Offer the Best Quality and Value.

Very Low Lithium Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.com

CL Answer

Is drinking coffee good or bad for heart health?

Learn more about coffee and caffeine, its safety, if it's good for you, how much coffee is too much and its impact on your heart.

Product Review

Magnesium Supplements Review (Including Calcium, Boron, and Vitamins D & K)

Find Out What Magnesium Does, Who Needs It, and Our Top Picks Among Supplements

Clinical Update

4/08/2022

Vitamin B-12 Deficiency and Dementia

Correcting B-12 deficiency may improve cognition in people with dementia, according to a recent study and case reports. Get the details in the Memory, Cognition, and Alzheimer’s Disease section of our B Vitamin Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

7/21/2021

Magnesium & Memory

Does supplementation with magnesium (as magnesium L-threonate, Magtein) improve cognition in people with dementia? Find out in the Dementia & Cognition section of our Magnesium Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

8/03/2021

Coffee and Dementia?

Can drinking coffee increase or decrease the risk of dementia? A cause-and-effect relationship has not been established but some striking associations were recently found based on consumption levels. We've added the details to the Safety section of our article about Coffee and Heart Health.

Clinical Update

6/22/2021

Diet and Dementia

Which foods were linked to a lower risk of dementia in a recent study? Find out in our article about supplements and foods for Memory and Cognition.

Clinical Update

6/27/2020

Factors For Lower Risk of Dementia

Diet and lifestyle factors were associated with up to 60% reductions in the risk of developing Alzheimer dementia according to a new study. Learn about these lifestyle factors in the updated answer to the question: Do any supplements really help with brain function, like memory and cognition?

Clinical Update

8/20/2016

Calcium Supplements & Risk of Dementia

Taking calcium supplements is associated with an increased risk of dementia in certain elderly women, according to a new study. Get the details in the "Cautions and Concerns" section of the Calcium Supplements Review >>

Clinical Update

8/27/2017

Does Lithium Prevent Dementia?

A new study found the risk of developing dementia to be significantly lower in areas with higher levels of lithium in the drinking water. This finding is consistent with a study that found low-dose lithium to stabilize patients with Alzheimer's disease. Details about these studies are in the "What It Does" section of the Low-Dose Supplements Review, which includes our Top Picks among low-dose lithium supplements.

Clinical Update

9/23/2017

Magnesium and Dementia

A recent study found an association between magnesium levels in the blood and the risk of developing dementia. See the details in the "What It Does" section of the Magnesium Supplements Review >>

Clinical Update

11/19/2019

Magnesium for Memory

There is growing evidence that getting the right amount of magnesium reduces the risk of developing cognitive decline and dementia. For details, including results of a new study, see the Dementia and cognition section of the Magnesium Supplements Review. Also see our Top Pick among magnesium supplements.

Clinical Update

5/26/2020

Lower Risk of Dementia Through Foods

A 20-year study showed that the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia was 76% lower in people who ate more of certain foods. Find out what they ate and learn if supplements can help in our answer to the question: Do any supplements really help with brain function, like memory and cognition?

Clinical Update

10/14/2017

Reducing Dementia With Magnesium?

In a recently published study, investigators looked to see if taking a magnesium supplement reduces the risk of dementia. See what they found in the "What It Does" section of the Magnesium Supplements Review >>

Clinical Update

3/29/2017

Vitamin E/Selenium & Alzheimer's

A long-term study among men in the U.S. found that giving high doses of vitamin E and/or selenium did not significantly affect their risk of developing dementia. The study was part of a larger study which found that these supplements increased the risk of prostate cancer, type 2 diabetes, hair loss, and dermatitis. For details, see the "Alzheimer's disease/dementia" section of the Selenium Supplements Review >>

Product Review

Huperzine A Supplements Review

Choose the Best Huperzine A Supplement. CL Tests Reveal the Best Huperzine A Supplements for Memory.

Huperzine A Supplements Tested by ConsumerLab.com

CL Answer

Does ergothioneine help prevent age-related problems such as impaired cognition, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or cataract, and is it safe?

Learn about ergothioneine and its potential use for cognitive impairment, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cataract, or kidney disease, as well as its safety and cost of supplements containing this ingredient.

Various types of mushrooms that contain ergothioneine in a wooden bowl on a wooden countertop

Product Review

Vitamin D Supplements Review (Including Calcium, Magnesium, Boron, and Vitamin K)

Find the Best Vitamin D Supplement with the Right Dose

Clinical Update

9/30/2012

Does Ginkgo Improve Memory?

The evidence for Ginkgo biloba in preventing and treating Alzheimer's disease and other dementias has become fairly negative. But is there still hope for its use in improving memory in healthy individuals? The answer seems to be in, according to a new analysis of 10 placebo-controlled trials in healthy people. Get the answer in the update to the Ginkgo Supplements Review.

Product Review

NAD Booster Supplements Review (NAD+/NADH, Nicotinamide Riboside, and NMN)

How Important Is Boosting NAD+ Levels? Find Out and Learn How Booster Supplements Compare.

NAD Boosters (NAD+/NADH, Nicotinamide Ribose, and NMN)

CL Answer

Butyrate Supplements for Gut Health: Does butyric acid really work and is it safe?

Can butyrate supplements improve gut health or help reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or Crohn's disease? Find out what the clinical evidence shows, learn about the different forms of butyrate, including sodium butyrate, calcium-magnesium butyrate, and tributyrate, and get details about products such as BodyBio Sodium Butyrate and Healus Complete Biotic Tributyrin, dosage, safety and cost.

Butyrate Supplements

CL Answer

Does silica have health benefits? What is BioSil, and can it really increase collagen production and strengthen hair, skin, nails and bones?

Information about the health effects of silica (silicon dioxide) and orthosilicic acid (an ingredient in BioSil), including whether these forms of silicon can really increase collagen production, thicken hair, strengthen nails & bones.

Does BioSil Strengthen Hair, Skin and Nails? -- Bottle of BioSil

Product Review

Ginkgo (Ginkgo Biloba) Supplements Review

Choose the Best Ginkgo Biloba Supplement. Finding Real Ginkgo Isn't Easy — 60% Fail ConsumerLab's Tests of Quality.

Ginkgo Biloba Supplements Tested by ConsumerLab.com

CL Answer

What are the health benefits of amla and is it safe?

Learn about amla (Indian gooseberry), including its potential health benefits and possible safety concerns.

Amla supplement capsules being poured onto a wooden table with amla fruit in the background

Product Review

Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Oil Omega-3 (DHA & EPA) Supplements Review

Find the Best Fish Oil & Compare to Prescription Omega-3 Drugs. See Our Top Picks Among Fish Oil & Other Omega-3 Supplements for Adults, Children and Pets.

Fish Oil and Other Marine Oil Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.com

CL Answer

Does Qualia Mind boost memory and mental function and is it worth cost?

Learn about the ingredients in Qualia Mind, whether or not we think the formula works and is safe, and if we think it's worth the cost.

qualia-mind

Product Review

Calcium and Bone Health Supplements Review (Including Vitamins D & K, Magnesium and Boron)

See Which Bone Health Supplements Are Top Picks and Which Fail

Product Review

B Vitamin Supplements Review (B Complexes, B6, B12, Biotin, Folate, Niacin, Riboflavin & More)

See Which B Vitamins Are ConsumerLab's Top Picks!

Review of B Vitamin Supplements

CL Answer

Does Bacopa extract improve memory, mood, or sleep? Is it safe?

Find out if bacopa improves memory and cognition, mood or sleep, and whether it's been shown to be helpful in people with Alzheimer's disease or dementia. Plus, learn about the safety and common side effects of bacopa.

Bacopa for Memory and Cognition -- Bacopa leaves and powder

Clinical Update

6/18/2016

Green Tea & Cognition

Green tea consumption has been associated with a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in older adults. However, a recent study evaluating the effects of a green tea powder on older adults with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia failed to show a benefit. For more information, see the "What It Does" section of the Green Tea Review >>

Clinical Update

10/04/2011

Fish Oil's Impact on Cognitive Decline

Cognitive decline may be a normal part of aging, but a new study suggests that high-dose fish oil particularly rich in DHA may provide some benefit. In people over age 65 with mild cognitive impairment, fish oil was associated with improved verbal skill. Perhaps as important, fish oil also reduced depressive symptoms, which can be a risk factor in the progression to dementia. Get the details, including how much DHA and EPA was used in the study, in the Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplement ReviewMore >>

Clinical Update

9/09/2012

Ginkgo Fails Alzheimer's Trial

Over two thousand people with memory complaints were given Ginkgo biloba extract or placebo as part of a five-year study. The results, published this week, showed no difference between the groups in the percentage who eventually developed Alzheimer's disease or dementia. See how this compares to other studies of ginkgo in the updated Ginkgo Biloba Supplements Review, which includes our tests and reviews of ginkgo products. More >>

Clinical Update

8/08/2014

Up To a Point, Alzheimer's Risk Falls with Vitamin D

A new study shows that, up to a point, the risks of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia fall with higher blood levels of vitamin D. However, the research also clarifies that exceeding a certain blood level of vitamin D provides no further benefit. In fact, additional research suggests that too much vitamin D can have negative effects. The message: Make sure you have a sufficient, but not excessive level of vitamin D. For details about these levels, as well as results of our tests of vitamin D supplements, see the updated Vitamin D Supplements Review >> 

Clinical Update

9/16/2015

Adequate Vitamin D May Lower Risk of Alzheimer's

A study showed that men and women with adequate levels of vitamin D in their blood were less likely to experience declines in cognitive functioning associated with Alzheimer's dementia than those with lower levels. More about the study, including the vitamin D level considered adequate, as well as our reviews of supplements, is found in the Vitamin D Supplements Review >>

Clinical Update

11/23/2019

Magnesium-L-Threonate for Memory?

What is the evidence that a special form of magnesium helps people with memory and concentration impairment? Find out in the Dementia and cognition section of the Magnesium Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks among magnesium supplements.

Clinical Update

5/26/2018

Do We Really Need More Lithium?

Studies have shown higher rates of mental illness and dementia in areas with the lowest levels of lithium in the water, suggesting that people supplement with lithium. However, a new study raises doubts about this. For details, see the What It Does section of the Low-Dose Lithium Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

11/27/2018

Can Vitamin D Boost Cognition?

Middle-aged people with low levels of vitamin D were given high-dose vitamin D for four months. Find out if this boosted their cognitive performance in the Alzheimer's disease, dementia, memory and cognitive decline section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review. (Also see our Top Picks for vitamin D.)

Clinical Update

4/08/2017

Omega-3s for Age-Related Cognitive Decline?

A recent study found DHA and EPA from fish oil did not slow cogntive decline in older adults with cognitive difficulties. However, other studies suggest there may be a benefit if taken before the onset of cognitive decline or dementia. For details, see the "Age-Related Cognitive Decline" section of the Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Review >>

Clinical Update

8/07/2021

COVID Vaccination in People With Neurologic Conditions

Should people with neurologic conditions – including dementia, Alzheimer's disease, MS, and epilepsy – get vaccinated? Find out what experts recommend.

Clinical Update

7/19/2022

Vitamin D & Alzheimer's Caution

Although several studies suggest that maintaining an adequate level of vitamin D may help reduce the risk of Alzheimer's, a recent study provided a cautionary note. See the details in the Alzheimer's and Dementia section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

8/19/2022

Less Centrophenoxine in Supplements Than Stated

Centrophenoxine, a drug that is prescribed in some countries to treat dementia, is also in supplements in the U.S., but a study found that most don't contain what they claim. Learn more in our article about supplements for memory and cognition.

Clinical Update

9/02/2022

Lithium for Dementia?

Does low-dose lithium stabilize or improve cognitive function in people with Alzheimer’s or other forms of cognitive decline? Find out in the What It Does section of our Low-Dose Lithium Supplements Review.

Also see our CL Answer about supplements for brain function.

CL Answer

Do "Mr. Happy Stack" supplements improve memory, cognition and mood, and are they safe?

Find out if Happy Stack supplements really work to enhance memory and cognition, plus safety and side effects. ConsumerLab.com's answer explains.

Happy Stack for Memory? -- Person holding a capsule

CL Answer

Does Alpha Brain really improve memory, focus and cognition?

Find out if Alpha Brain really improves memory, focus and cognition. See the clinical evidence and get details about Alpha Brain ingredients, as well as potential side effects and drug interactions. ConsumerLab.com's answer explains.

Does-Alpha-Brain-Work?

CL Answer

What is Noopept? Can it really improve memory and cognition, and is it safe?

Learn more about Noopept, including results from clinical studies on cognition, safety, and dosage.

Product Review

Green Tea Review: Tea Bags, Loose Tea, Matcha Powders, and Supplements

Disturbing Findings for Some Major Brands of Green Tea. See the Test Results and Our Top Picks for Green Tea.

Green Tea Review By ConsumerLab.com

Product Review

Selenium Supplements Review

Choose the Best Selenium Supplement. Find Out If You Need Selenium and Which Supplement Is Our Top Pick.

Selenium Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.com

CL Answer

How much calcium do you need each day, what forms are best, and how much is too much?

Learn about the recommended daily intake of calcium from food & supplements and why taking too much can be harmful. Also, learn about the forms of calcium that are available and which are best.

None

Recalls & Warnings

2/13/2019

Supplements Promoted for Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia Sell "False Hope," Warns FDA

On February 11, 2019, the FDA warned consumers to beware supplements promoted to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease or dementia.

CL Answer

What is hesperidin, what is it used for and is it safe?

Learn about hesperidin, including whether its beneficial for heart health, problems with circulation, stroke, cognitive function, depression, cancer and other conditions, and find out if it is safe.

A glass of orange juice sitting on a table and surrounded by sliced and whole oranges

CL Answer

Do either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylcholine help with memory and cognition? How are these supplements different?

Find out if phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylcholine supplements improve memory and cognition.

Brain Puzzle

CL Answer

Is it possible to get too much vitamin D?

Too much vitamin D can lead to adverse effects, including hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood).

Too Much Vitamin D? -- bottle of vitamin D and vitamin D tablets in the shape of the letter D

CL Answer

How do over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids compare to prescription hearing aids?

Non-prescription hearing aid reviews, including MD Hearing Aid, Eargo Hearing Aid, Liberty Hearing Aid, etc. Compare quality & cost with prescription hearing aids.

OTC hearing aids

News Release

6/14/2022

Best B Complexes, B12, and Other B Vitamin Supplements Revealed by ConsumerLab Tests: Beware of High Doses

  White Plains, New York, June 14, 2022 — Recent ConsumerLab tests of over 30 popular vitamin B complexes and supplements revealed that four products contained either much less, or much more, of at least one B vitamin listed on the label.

Recalls & Warnings

11/26/2019

Cognitive Enhancement Supplements Contain Unapproved Drug

Several supplements sold in the U.S. and promoted for cognitive enhancement contain significant amounts of the drug piracetam -- a drug that is not approved for use in the U.S. -- according to a study published this week in JAMA Internal Medicine. 

Recalls & Warnings

9/14/2021

Seller of Lion's Mane, Other Mushroom Supplements Warned by FDA

On July 20, 2021, the FDA issued a warning letter to Brilliant Enterprises LLC because it found statements made on the company's website and social media about mushroom supplements, including Lion's Mane, BoomChaga, CordaCex, and LVL:MAX to be drug claims.

Recalls & Warnings

2/25/2020

FTC Sends Refund Checks to Consumers of Unproven "Brain-Boosting" Supplements

On February 25, 2020, the FTC announced it is mailing 27,174 checks totaling more than $551,000 to consumers who purchased deceptively marketed "cognitive improvement" supplements. The refunds are being distributed as part of a settlement of charges that the products contained deceptive claims.

Recalls & Warnings

12/29/2020

FDA Warns Five Sellers of CBD for Claims of Treating Arthritis, Alzheimer's and More

On December 22, 2020, the FDA issued warning letters to five sellers of CBD following reviews of the companies' websites, which found statements made about the companies' products to be drug claims.

News Release

3/07/2018

Finding Real Ginkgo Isn't Easy, ConsumerLab's Tests Reveal

White Plains, New York, March 7, 2018 — Recent tests of popular Ginkgo biloba supplements sold in the U.S. found that only 4 of 10 were confirmed to contain their listed amounts of real ginkgo extract.

Recalls & Warnings

12/05/2018

Seller of Cold and Flu Supplements, "SuperFood" & More Warned by FDA

On October 30, 2018, the FDA issued a warning letter to American Botanical Pharmacy following a review of the company's website (www.herbdoc.com) and Facebook page, which found statements made about some of its products to be drug claims.

Recalls & Warnings

5/21/2014

Seller of Gingko and Milk Thistle Warned for Manufacturing Violations and Drug Claims

On April 4, 2014, the FDA issued a warning letter to Xtra Life Natural Systems, Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

9/26/2020

Cognitive Enhancement Supplements Can Contain Unapproved Drugs

Recent testing detected five unapproved drugs in 10 over-the-counter cognitive enhancement and workout supplements sold in the US.

Recalls & Warnings

4/23/2019

"Brain Boosting" Supplements Were Promoted With Non-Existent Clinical Studies

On April 10th, 2019, the FTC (Federal Trade Commission) announced the marketers of cognitive enhancement supplements Geniux, Xcel, EVO, and Ion-Z have agreed to settle charges that they made false claims about the product, including fake research references and celebrity ...

Recalls & Warnings

10/24/2012

FDA Seizes Many Supplements from New York Company Due To Drug Claims

On October 23, 2012, U.S. Marshalls, acting on behalf of the FDA, seized dietary supplements and unapproved drugs from Confidence, Inc., a supplement manufacturer in Port Washington, N.Y. The products included dietary supplements Dr.

Recalls & Warnings

12/01/2017

Health Research Labs Agrees to Settle FTC Charges of False Claims, Deceptive Marketing of BioTherapex and NeuroPlus

On November 30, 2017, the FTC announced Health Research Laboratories LLC and owner, Kramer Duhon, agreed to settle charges that they made false claims about the company's products, BioTherapex and NeuroPlus.

Recalls & Warnings

8/13/2016

Seller of Omega-3, Ginkgo, Vision Supplements & More Warned for Drug Claims

On July 22, 2016, the FDA issued a warning letter to Viva Nutraceuticals (J & E International Corporation) following a review of the company's website and promotional literature, which found statement made about its products, Eyestonia, Ginkgo Biloba 60mg, Golden Omega-3 Max, ...

Recalls & Warnings

8/09/2012

Makers of Mineral Water Containing Lithium Warned

On July 20, 2012, the FDA issued a warning letter to Lithia Mineral Water, Inc. declaring Lithia mineral water product to be an approved drug following a 2011 facility inspection.

Recalls & Warnings

2/24/2015

Seller of Heart, Brain and Diabetes Supplements Warned for Drug Claims

On February 6, 2015, the FDA issued a warning letter to LCW, Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

5/06/2014

Seller of Flaxseed, Ginkgo and More Warned for Manufacturing Violations and Drug Claims

On April 18, 2014, the FDA issued a warning letter to Iowa Select Herbs, LLC, following a facility inspection which found the company's products, including Flax Seed, Holy Basil, Papaya Leaf Extract, and Ginkgo Leaf Extract products, to be adulterated because they were prepared, packed, or held ...

Recalls & Warnings

10/24/2012

Warning Issued to Memory Supplement Maker For Unapproved Drug Ingredient, Drug Claims and Unreported Adverse Events

On October 16, 2012, the FDA issued a letter to dietary supplement manufacturer Quincy Bioscience Manufacturing Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

9/26/2014

Sellers of Essential Oils Warned for Claiming to Treat Ebola, Other Diseases

On September 22, 2014, the FDA issued a warning to Young Living following a review of websites, Pinterest, Facebook and Twitter accounts owned by Young Living distributors, which found statements made about the company's essential oils, including Thieves, Cinnamon Bark, Oregano, ImmuPower, ...

Recalls & Warnings

8/16/2006

Marketers of Diabetes Supplement Banned From Claiming Products Treat or Cure Diseases

On August 10, 2006, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced that an operation selling Chinese herbal supplements is banned from claiming its products treat or cure diseases, to settle FTC charges it violated a previous court order.

Recalls & Warnings

1/05/2005

Marketers of Brain-Rejuvinating Supplement Settle FTC Charges of False Claims

On January 5, 2005, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced that a company that heavily advertised an herbal dietary supplement called "Sagee" to the Chinese-language and Vietnamese-language communities had settled FTC charges of making false and unsubstantiated claims for the product.

Recalls & Warnings

3/17/2004

Marketers of “Focus Factor” and “V-Factor” Fined for Advertising Claims

On March 17 , 2004 the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) reported that the marketers of “Focus Factor,” a dietary supplement that purports to improve concentration, and “V-Factor,” a supplement that purports to enhance sexual performance, have agreed to settle charges that they made numerous ...

Recalls & Warnings

5/28/2003

FTC Challenges Claims of Five Supplements to Treat or Cure Serious Diseases

On May 27, 2003 the Federal Trade Commission announced that it had filed a complaint in federal district court against A.

Recalls & Warnings

6/13/2013

Seller of Cardio, Immune, Greens Supplements and More Warned For Drug Claims

On May 29, 2013, the FDA issued a warning letter to dietary supplement company Nature's Answer, following a review a the company's website, www.naturesanswer.

Recalls & Warnings

5/23/2013

Seller of Sexual Enhancement, Cholesterol, Resveratrol Supplements and More Warned For Drug Claims

On May 2, 2013, the FDA issued a warning letter to Alternative Health Supplements, following a review of the company's website, which found statements made about several dietary supplements, including Regenerect, Alligin, Astaxanthin Advantage, HDL Cholesterol Management, Resveratrol, Coral Calcium ...