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CL Answer

Is it true that eating Brazil nuts can help with weight loss? Are there other health benefits or risks of Brazil nuts

Learn more about vitamin E intake from nuts, including Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, and almonds.

Product Review

Potassium Iodide (KI) and Iodate (KIO3) Radioprotective Pills Review

Learn How to Choose the Best Radioprotective Iodine Pill and Use It Properly

CL Answer

Which supplements are helpful to have when traveling? Any tips on how to best store supplements on trips?

Find out which vitamins & supplements can be helpful when traveling, including melatonin, ginger, and more, and find out how you can carry them with you.

CL Answer

Do any supplements or foods help prevent sunburn or skin damage from sun exposure? Can any increase your risk of sun-related skin damage?

Find out which supplements may help protect from sunburn and sun-related skin damage, including beta-carotene, vitamins A and C, and cocoa.

Dermatologist examining the skin on the back of an older woman for signs of sun damage or skin cancer

CL Answer

Do UV light sanitizing wands and boxes kill coronavirus (COVID-19)?

UV light is promoted as an effective and convenient alternative to chemical disinfectants, but can it work against the coronavirus? Learn the the pros and cons and see our reviews and comparisons of popular UV devices on the market.

UV Light to Kill Coronavirus (COVID-10)? -- UV Light, Medical Mask and Stethoscope

Product Review

Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplements Review

Choose the Best Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplement — See the Amounts of Active "R-Isomer" We Found

CL Answer

Are cranberry supplements helpful for men? Can they help with symptoms of an enlarged prostate, prostatitis, or urinary tract infections?

Learn more about how cranberry pills, cranberries, cranberry juice and supplements can help prevent urinary tract infections.

Cranberry Supplements for Men? -- Bottle of cranberry capsules

CL Answer

What is the best sunscreen based on safety and efficacy?

Two different carcinogens, benzene and benzophenone have been found in popular sunscreens. These cancer-causing compounds are not listed on labels. Get the details and find out which sunscreens have been found to contain benzene and benzophenone.

Carcinogens in Sunscreens - Bottle of sunscreen with a question mark

CL Answer

I spend a lot of time in the sun, especially in the summer. Does this mean my vitamin D levels could get too high?

Find out if spending too much time outside, especially in the summer, can cause excess vitamin D levels in the body.

Elderly Couple Sitting on Beach Under Umbrella

CL Answer

Does Restore (Biomic Sciences LLC) really improve gut health? What is in Restore?

Learn more about Restore, including clinical studies on gut health, dosage, cost, and safety.

CL Answer

Contamination of Dry Shampoos with Benzene — What You Need to Know

Benzene, a carcinogen, has been detected in several dry shampoo aerosol sprays. Find out which dry shampoos were found to contain benzene and how much was in each one, plus how tips for reducing your exposure to benzene.

Dry Shampoo

CL Answer

Can CoQ10 or ubiquinol be ruined by heat? I recently purchased several bottles of Qunol Plus from and they arrived hot. The soft gels are not melted, but I am concerned.

Find out whether your CoQ10 or ubiquinol supplement can be destroyed by heat during shipping and at what temperature CoQ10 softgels can melt.'s answer explains.

Box of Vitamins and Supplements

CL Answer

Does vitamin B12 improve memory?

Find out if vitamin B12 improves memory and cognition, how much to take, plus information about other supplements may help.'s answer explains.

Review of B Vitamin Supplements

CL Answer

Do vitamins, minerals or other supplements lose effectiveness with exposure to high temperatures?

Are vitamins and supplements susceptible to heat? Find out if mail ordering during the summer is safe.

Heat's Effect on Supplements in the Mail -- Woman receiving a package

CL Answer

Do gluten-free diets increase your exposure to toxins like arsenic and mercury?

Find out if your gluten-free diet is increasing your exposure to toxic heavy metals like arsenic and mercury.

Woman with Freshly Baked Cookies

CL Answer

How can I find supplements that are gluten-free on

Gluten-Free supplements & vitamin information including other dietary features like vegetarian, vegan, and kosher on Our answer explains.

Finding Gluten-Free Supplements -- gluten-free seal

CL Answer

What are the health effects of turkey tail mushroom and is it safe?

Learn about the possible health effects of turkey tail mushroom, including its use as adjuvant treatment for cancer and for boosting immune function, plus get information about possible side effects and find out why ConsumerLab has not yet tested turkey tail products.

Turkey tail mushrooms growing on the side of a tree

CL Answer

Do any supplements reduce the side effects of chemotherapy? Should any be avoided?

Find out if there are any supplements that can help with the side effects of chemotherapy, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, nerve damage and others.'s answer explains.

Supplements & Chemotherapy Side Effects -- chemotherapy medicine and capsules

CL Answer

Are antioxidant supplements good or bad for you?

Learn more about whether antioxidants like astaxanthin, beta-carotene, coenzyme Q10, curcumin, resveratrol, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E are safe and if they help prevent chronic diseases.

Can Antioxidants Cause You to Die Sooner? -- antioxidant supplements and carrots

CL Answer

How concerned should I be about glyphosate in foods and supplements?

Find out if you should be concerned about glyphosate in foods and supplements.'s answer explains.

Glyphosate in Food -- bowl of oat o's cereal

Clinical Update


Iodine Pills for Radiation Protection

Due to concerns relating to the safety of nuclear reactors and potential use of nuclear weapons in the war in Ukraine, demand for radioprotective iodine products has jumped.

Potassium iodide and potassium iodate can help protect the thyroid from the effects of radioactive iodine from the air, water, and foods after a nuclear event. But who should be taking these products, when should they be taken, and how much should be taken?

Find out in our review of Potassium Iodide and Iodate Radioprotective Pills, and see our Top Picks among products (and where to currently get them).

Clinical Update


Some UV Light Wands May Cause Injury

While often promoted to disinfect surfaces and kill germs in the home, some UV light devices may give off potentially dangerous levels of ultraviolet-C radiation. See which brands are of concern in our Answer about UV light sanitizing wands.

Clinical Update


How to Get UV-A Protection from Sunscreen

UV-A radiation from the sun causes wrinkles and age-spots. Many people don't realize that SPF values on sunscreens refer only to UV-B protection. Find out what to look for on labels to determine UV-A protection.

We've also updated our list of sunscreens made with safer ingredients.

Clinical Update


Cranberry for Cystitis in Men?

Cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) is common in men undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. A study evaluated whether a cranberry supplement could reduce the incidence of cystitis in these men. Find out if it helped in our updated answer to the question: Are cranberry supplements helpful for men? Can they help with symptoms of prostatitis or urinary tract infections?

Recalls & Warnings

July 21, 2022

UV Light Wands That May Cause Injury, According to the FDA

The FDA recently warned consumers of potential exposure to unsafe levels of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation associated with the use of certain brands of ultraviolet (UV) wands, as found from testing conducted by the agency.

Clinical Update


Exposure to Forever Chemicals

Learn about a tool to help you estimate your exposure to PFAS ("forever chemicals") and ways to reduce exposure. For details, see the PFAS section of our Water Filter Pitchers Review, which includes our Top Picks for removing PFAS.

Clinical Update


Aluminum Exposure from Coffee?

Does drinking coffee made from aluminum capsules or in aluminum pots significantly increase aluminum exposure? Find out what research suggests in the Other Concerns with Coffee section of our article about coffee.

Clinical Update


Humidifiers & Heavy Metal Exposure

Using the wrong kind of water in some humidifiers can cause exposure to heavy metals, according to a recent study. Get the details in the Potential problems with humidifiers section of our CL Answer about air purifiers.

Clinical Update


Omicron Symptoms and Testing

Find out how quickly symptoms develop after Omicron exposure. Also learn when you should get tested.

Clinical Update


Keep Energy Drinks Away from Kids

It was reported this week that 40% of calls to poison centers for "energy drink exposure" involved children under age 6, many of whom experienced serious side effects. For more about this and other concerns with energy drinks, as well as our test results for popular products, see the B Vitamins & Energy Drinks Review >> 

Clinical Update


How Much Sun for Vitamin D?

Is sun exposure to the hands, arms, and legs enough to boost or maintain adequate vitamin D levels? See what a recent study showed in the Getting Vitamin D from Sunlight section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks for vitamin D.

Clinical Update


Air Cleaners for Wildfire Smoke

Find out which types of portable air cleaners are best for wildfire smoke. Also see our top picks among air cleaners (including for use in reducing viral exposure).

Clinical Update


New Recommendations for Quarantine and Isolation

The CDC has shortened its recommended time for isolation after confirmed infection as well as quarantine after exposure. Get the details, plus find out if people should be retested before ending isolation.

Clinical Update


How Much Sun to Boost Vitamin D?

Find out how much sun exposure was needed in a recent study to significantly increase vitamin D levels in older people in the Getting Vitamin D from Sunlight section of our Vitamin D Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks among vitamin D supplements.

Clinical Update


Vitamin D and Melanoma

Can vitamin D supplementation improve outcomes in people with melanoma skin cancer? See what a new study found in the What It Does section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review.

Also see our answer to the question: Do any supplements or foods help prevent sunburn or skin damage from sun exposure? Can any increase your risk of sun-related skin damage?

Clinical Update


How Much Vitamin D from Sunshine?

Does exposure to midday sun increase already sufficient vitamin D blood levels? Get the surprising answer from a new study in the Getting vitamin D from sunlight section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks among vitamin D supplements.

Clinical Update


CPAP Humidifiers & PFAS?

Can using a CPAP humidifier increase one's exposure to potentially dangerous PFAS? Find out in our updated answer about Avoiding PFAS.

Clinical Update


Loss of Minerals with Reverse Osmosis

Reverse osmosis water filtration depletes water of minerals. Is it necessary to add minerals back? Find out in our article about reducing exposure to PFAS, which includes our Top Pick countertop reverse osmosis filter.

Also see our Water Pitcher Filters Review.

Clinical Update


Benzene in Dry Shampoos – What You Need to Know

The carcinogen, benzene, was recently discovered in tests of dozens of dry shampoos. Learn which products had the most or least benzene and how to minimize benzene exposure when using these products.

Clinical Update


Dioxins from Coffee Filters?

Some paper coffee filters contain toxic chemicals that can leach into coffee. Learn more and how to reduce exposure in CL Answer about coffee.

Clinical Update


Sunscreen Allergy

Although uncommon, sunscreens can cause allergic skin reactions upon exposure to sunlight. Get the details about a recently reported case, and find out who is most likely to be affected, in our article about the best sunscreen based on safety and efficacy.

Clinical Update


Problem With a Preventive Drug

EVUSHELD (tixagevimab with cilgavimab) is the only product authorized for the pre-exposure prevention of COVID-19, but evidence shows it may provide less protection against Omicron variants compared to earlier strains. Get the details in our CL Answer about treatments for COVID-19.

Clinical Update


How Many Times Should You Test?

After exposure to COVID-19, how many times should you test? It may be more times than you think, according to a recent study. Get the details in the Antigen Tests section of our CL Answer about COVID-19 Testing.

Clinical Update


How to Minimize Carcinogen in Sunscreens

Benzophenone is a carcinogen found in sunscreens made with oxybenzone or octocrylene. In addition to seeking sunscreens that don't contain these compounds, a recent study provided insights on how to further minimize benzophenone exposure, which we've added to our article about sunscreen safety. Also see our list of safer sunscreens.

Clinical Update


Does Taking Vitamin D Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease?

Earlier research has suggested an association between higher vitamin D levels in the blood and reduced risk of heart attack. But blood levels are affected by both sun exposure as well as intake of vitamin D. A new study shows that men with higher vitamin D intakes from foods and supplements have a 14% reduction in their risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the study found no reduction among women. The amount of vitamin D intake shown to be beneficial and possible reasons why a benefit was not found in women are provided in the updated "What It Does" section of our Product Review of Vitamin D SupplementsMore >>

Recalls & Warnings

October 29, 2019

Publisher Sued for Promoting "Phony Diabetes Cure"

On October 24, 2019 the FTC filed a lawsuit against the publisher of books, newsletters, and other publications aimed at seniors that falsely promise to cure type 2 diabetes.

Recalls & Warnings

November 16, 2023

Toxic Levels of Lead Found in Cinnamon Applesauce

WanaBana, Schnucks, and Weis apple cinnamon fruit puree pouches have been recalled after being linked, as of December 5, 2023, to 64 reports of illness, including four children with potential lead toxicity.

Recalls & Warnings

October 24, 2022

Dove, Suave, Tresemme & Other Dry Shampoos Recalled Due to Benzene

On October 18, 2022, Unilever issued a recall of 19 dry shampoo products including Dove, Suave, and Tresemme after an internal investigation found the products to contain benzene. According to Unilever, the propellants of these products were the source.

Recalls & Warnings

May 22, 2018

FDA Warns Companies Selling "Sun Protection" Supplements

On May 18, 2018, the FDA issued warning letters to four companies selling supplements for sun protection because statements made on product labels, websites and in marketing materials were found to be drug claims, which are not permitted for dietary supplements. 

News Release

May 28, 2004 warns of deceptive campaign by manufacturer of children's vitamin

WHITE PLAINS, NY — FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE — FRIDAY MAY 28, 2004 — Responding to a deceptive public relations campaign recently launched by vitamin manufacturer Northwest Natural Products, Inc., ConsumerLab.

Recalls & Warnings

November 05, 2021

Herb Recalled Due to Risk of Lead, Cadmium Contamination

On November 2, 2021, Murray Int'l Trading issued a recall of Herbal Doctor brand Angelicae Sinensis due to potential risk it may contain elevated levels of lead and cadmium.

Recalls & Warnings

August 07, 2021

Poppy Seed Tea, Unwashed Poppy Seeds Pose Risk of Overdose, Death

Unwashed poppy seeds can be contaminated with significant, even dangerous levels of opioid compounds that can cause serious adverse effects, overdose and death.

Recalls & Warnings

April 06, 2022

Mandalorian and Mickey Mouse Hand Sanitizers Recalled Due to Benzene, Methanol

On April 1, 2022, Best Brands Consumer Products, Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

December 20, 2021

Pantene, Herbal Essences, & Other Brands of Dry Shampoo and Conditioner Recalled Due to Benzene

On December 17, 2021, Procter & Gamble issued a recall of 26 aerosol spray dry shampoos and conditioners from six brands, including Aussie, Herbal Essences, Hair Food, Old Spice, Pantene, and Waterless Hair Care, because some of the products were found to contain benzene.

Recalls & Warnings

May 16, 2020

CBD Oil Recalled, Risk of High Lead Exposure

On May 15, 2020, Summitt Labs issued a recall of one batch of KORE ORGANIC Watermelon CBD Oil Tincture due to contamination with lead. A random sample of this product tested by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services found it to contain lead levels at 4.7 ppm.

Recalls & Warnings

May 01, 2021

Hand Sanitizer Sold at Ulta, TJ Maxx, and Marshalls Recalled Due to Toxic Chemicals

On April 28, 2021, Scentsational Soaps & Candles, Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

June 30, 2013

Warning Over Excessive Iodine Intake From Supplements, Including Kelp

On June 5, 2013, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) advised that children and adults, including pregnant and lactating women, consume no more than 500 mcg of iodine daily from iodine and kelp supplements.

Recalls & Warnings

May 09, 2020

FTC Warns 45 More Companies for Coronavirus Claims

On May 7, 2020, the FTC announced that it sent warning letters to 45 companies for selling products such as herbal products, immune system boosters, and vitamin C with unsupported claims that they can treat coronavirus (COVID-19).

Recalls & Warnings

July 29, 2017

Increase in Calls to Poison Control Centers About Supplements

The number of calls to poison control centers in the U.S. about dietary supplement exposures increased by almost 50% between 2005 and 2012, according to a study published this week in the Journal of Medical Toxicology.

Recalls & Warnings

June 07, 2013

Seller of Red Rice Yeast With CoQ10, Respiratory Supplement And More Warned For Manufacturing Violations and Drug Claims

On February 25, 2013, the FDA issued a warning letter to Altasource, LLC, dba Meta Labs LLC, following a facility inspection which found the company's dietary supplements, including Respiratory Response, African Mango, Coffee Black Salve, Meta-Cell, Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Red Yeast Rice with ...

Recalls & Warnings

November 28, 2014

Seller of Herbal Extracts Warned for Manufacturing Violations, Drug Claims

On November 3, 2014, the FDA issued a warning letter to Avena Botanicals, Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

September 18, 2015

High Levels of Mercury and Lead Found in Ayurvedic Herbal Supplements

On September 17, 2015, the FDA announced that Shree Baidyanath Ayurved Bhawan Ayurvedic dietary supplements were found to contain high levels of lead and/or mercury, which can cause serious health problems.

Recalls & Warnings

February 12, 2013

Judge Orders Drug and Supplement Company to Cease Manufacturing and Distribution

On February 8, 2012, the FDA announced Titan Medical Enterprises Inc. has been ordered to stop manufacturing and distributing drugs and dietary supplements until the company's manufacturing operations comply with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The order was signed on December 11, 2012, U.

Recalls & Warnings

August 19, 2015

Soylent Meal Replacement Powder Reported to Contain Lead and Cadmium

On August 13, 2015, an environmental-health watchdog group, As You Sow, filed a notice of intent to bring legal action against Soylent, a "meal replacement" powder, alleging violation of California's "Prop 65" Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act ...

Recalls & Warnings

March 10, 2015

Maker of Magnesium, Calcium, Zinc, B Vitamins and More Warned for Manufacturing Violations, Drug Claims

On January 8, 2015, the FDA issued a warning letter to Complete H2O Minerals, following a facility inspection which found the company's products, including Sulfur Concentrate, Copper, Extra Strength Copper, Extra Strength Magnesium, Extra Strength Zinc, Platinum, Gold, Indium, Molybdenum, ...

Recalls & Warnings

August 16, 2013

Ginkgo, Milk Thistle, Cleanse and Nopal Supplement Maker Warned For Manufacturing Violations, Drug Claims

On July 23, 2013, the FDA issued a warning letter to Natural Products Services, Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

January 29, 2004

U.S. Action on Mad Cow -- Supplements Included As Well as Food

On Jan. 26, 2004, the U.

Recalls & Warnings

December 11, 2002

Recall of Calcium Supplement Possibly Contaminated with Antibiotic

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the following Class II recall information in its December 11, 2002 Enforcement Report.

Recalls & Warnings

June 30, 2002

Recall of Dalyvite Liquid Multivitamin

In its June 26, 2002 Enforcement Report, the U.S. FDA reported the following Class III Food Recall. A Class III recall is a situation in which use of or exposure to a violative product is not likely to cause adverse health consequences.

Recalls & Warnings

January 19, 2002

Recall of Certain Iron Supplements

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the following Class III recall information in its January 16, 2002 Enforcement Report. A Class III recall is a situation in which use of or exposure to a violative product is not likely to cause adverse health consequences:

Recalls & Warnings

January 15, 2002

Recall of "Prostatin" Supplement -- Contains Aristolochic Acid

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the following Class I recall information in its January 9, 2002 Enforcement Report.