ConsumerLab.com uses JavaScript to provide the best possible experience for our content, but your browser has it disabled. Learn how to enable it here.

About ConsumerLab.com

Search term may appear only in full report available to members. Join now for full access.

CL Answer

What is fermented cod liver oil, such as Blue Ice? Is it better than regular cod liver oil?

Fermented cod liver oil information including if Rosita & Blue Ice (Green Pastures) is as good a source of vitamins and DHA as regular.

Fermented Oil On Spoon and in Syringe

CL Answer

Is there a risk of liver toxicity with certain supplements?

Find out if there is risk of liver damage from supplements such as green tea, niacin, red yeast rice and vitamin A.

Liver Shape Made From Paper with Pills and Bottle Against Blue Background

CL Answer

What is desiccated beef liver? What is it used for, and is it safe?

Description of desiccated beef liver, including what it is used for, its nutrient content, and safety concerns.

Beef liver powder

CL Answer

Do any supplements help with fatty liver disease? Are some diets more beneficial than others?

Find out if supplements such as vitamin E, fish oil, milk thistle, curcumin, choline, probiotics, vitamin D, reishi mushroom, or extra virgin olive oil are beneficial for fatty liver disease and learn which diet (Mediterranean, ketogenic, DASH, or fasting diets) seems to have greatest benefit.

Overweight man holding his right side near his liver

CL Answer

What is the difference between fish oil and cod liver oil? Is one better than the other?

Find out how regular fish oil and cod liver oil differ including amounts of omega-3s EPA and DHA, vitamin A and vitamin D, which is best to suit your needs. ConsumerLab.com's answer explains.

Fish Oil vs. Cod Liver Oil -- bottle of cod liver oil pouring into spoon

CL Answer

Can taking N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplements reduce my risk of liver damage from acetaminophen?

Information on taking NAC supplements (N-acetylcysteine) to reduce the risk of liver damage from acetaminophen.

Doctor Pointing to Liver Model

CL Answer

Is it true that milk thistle supplements can be contaminated with toxins that can be harmful to the liver?

Find out if milk thistle supplements can be contaminated with toxins that can be harmful to the liver.

Milk Thistle Plant and Supplement on White Background

CL Answer

My doctor warned me that red yeast rice can cause liver damage - is that true?

Can red yeast rice cause liver damage? More information on its effects, including possible danger to the liver and kidneys.

Red Yeast Rice Tablets on White Background

CL Answer

Should I be concerned about pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal supplements?

Find out which herbal supplement ingredients contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), learn why these constituents are a safety concern, and find out how supplements containing these ingredients are regulated in the U.S. and Europe.

Herbal capsules being poured out of supplement container onto table

CL Answer

Can CLA slimming supplements cause liver damage?

Find out more about CLA slimming supplements and their safety, including if they can cause liver damage.

Sign Saying CLA with Omega 6 Pills on White Background

CL Answer

Is it true that fish oil supplements may contain soy? I'm allergic!

Learn about soy content in fish oil and cod liver oil, including safety for those with soy allergies.

Do Fish Oil Supplements Contain Soy? -- bottle of fish oil and fish oil capsules

CL Answer

Are there any supplements I should avoid when taking acetaminophen (Tylenol)?

Find out if there are any supplements that should be avoided when taking acetaminophen (Tylenol).

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Interactions With Supplements -- box of Tylenol

CL Answer

Are there any serious side effects with Lovaza or Epanova (prescription fish oil)? If so, would these also apply to generic versions of these drugs and to fish oil supplements?

Understand the side effects of prescription fish oil like Lovaza and Epanova, and find out if the generic fish oils are effective and safe.

Fish Oil and Other Marine Oil Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.com

CL Answer

I would like to try gotu kola for varicose veins but I've heard it's not safe to take. Is that true?

Learn more about gotu kola, including possible benefits for varicose veins and whether it is safe to take. ConsumerLab explains.

CL Answer

What is TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid)? Does it have any proven health benefits, and is it safe?

TUDCA information, including its potential health benefits, safety, possible interactions, and cost.

What is Tudca - white capsules poured out of container

CL Answer

Is cinnamon dangerous for my liver? I put about a teaspoon of it in my oatmeal every day.

The most common form of cinnamon contains a naturally occurring liver toxin called coumarin. Find out how much cinnamon is safe to consume, and how often it can be consumed. Also learn how much coumarin ConsumerLab found in popular cinnamon and spices.

Liver Danger With Cinnamon -- Bowl of oatmeal with cinnamon and cinnamon sticks

CL Answer

I am very concerned about getting too much vitamin A. Is there danger in getting too much vitamin A if I take fish oil, which I've heard contains a lot of vitamin A, in addition to my multivitamin?

Find out if taking vitamin A along with fish oil can lead to an excess of vitamin A and how to avoid vitamin A overdose.

Fish Oil Supplements Poured from Bottle into Hand

CL Answer

Is it safe to consume fish oil as a long-term food supplement?

Learn more about fish oil supplement safety including long-term use, side effects, and more.

Fish Oil

Clinical Update

2/18/2022

Fish Oil for Fatty Liver?

Can fish oil supplementation help reduce liver fat and fibrosis in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)? Find out what a recent study suggests in the Liver Disease section of our Fish Oil Supplements Review.

Also see our article about Supplements for Fatty Liver Disease.

Clinical Update

8/09/2022

Vitamin E for Fatty Liver Disease?

Can vitamin E improve liver health in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)? Get the details in the Liver Disease section of our Vitamin E Supplements Review.

Also see our CL Answer about Supplements for Fatty Liver Disease.

Clinical Update

7/31/2021

Coffee And Fatty Liver Disease?

Can drinking coffee help prevent fatty liver disease and liver fibrosis (scarring)? Find out what research suggests in our CL Answer about supplements and diets for fatty liver disease.

Clinical Update

7/06/2022

Curcumin for Fatty Liver?

Does supplementing with curcumin decrease liver fat in people with fatty liver? See what a recent study found in the What It Does section of the Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements and Spices Review.

Also see our answer to the question: Do any supplements help with fatty liver disease? Are some diets more beneficial than others?

Clinical Update

8/07/2021

Bergamot for Fatty Liver?

Can bergamot help reduce cholesterol or liver fat in people with fatty liver disease? Find out in our updated answer about Supplements and Diets for fatty Liver Disease.

Clinical Update

6/20/2014

Green Tea and Liver Toxicity

Green tea extract was listed as one of the most common dietary supplements linked to liver injury in a newly published guideline for diagnosing and treating drug-induced liver injury. Find out what one of the authors of the guideline had to say about the catechin content of some green tea supplements, and get our test results showing the amounts of catechins in green tea supplements in the Green Tea Supplements, Drinks and Brewable Teas Review >>   

Clinical Update

7/12/2016

Vitamin D & Fatty Liver

Vitamin D supplementation may decrease fat accumulation in the liver in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who are vitamin D deficient. Get the details in the "What It Does" section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review >>

Clinical Update

10/25/2014

Probiotics Reduce Cholesterol / Improve Liver Function

Adding probiotic organisms to yogurt appeared to reduce LDL ("bad") cholesterol in a study of people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a common condition. Levels of liver enzymes also improved and more weight loss occurred when people ate the probiotic yogurt, in contrast to those who ate regular yogurt. The probiotic organisms used in this study are found in several products recently tested by ConsumerLab.com. See the details in the Probiotic Supplements Review >> 

Clinical Update

4/22/2022

Vitamin E for Fatty Liver Disease?

Can supplementation with vitamin E benefit people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD)? See what the American Heart Association recently advised in the What It Does section of our Vitamin E Supplements Review.

Also see our answer to the question: Do any supplements help with fatty liver disease?

Clinical Update

7/27/2021

Diets for Fatty Liver Disease

Are some diets more beneficial than others for fatty liver disease? Find out in our CL Answer about supplements and diets for fatty liver disease.

Clinical Update

9/17/2021

Vitamin C For Fatty Liver?

Can taking high-dose vitamin C improve liver function or insulin resistance in people with NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease)? Find out what a recent study showed in the What It Does section of our Vitamin C Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks among vitamin C supplements.

Clinical Update

10/05/2021

Diet for Fatty Liver Disease

Find out the most important dietary considerations for people with fatty liver disease in our updated answer to the question: Do any supplements help with fatty liver disease? Are some diets more beneficial than others?

Clinical Update

8/02/2022

Supplements & Liver Injury?

We’ve added four additional supplements to our list of more than a dozen Supplements That May Cause Liver Toxicity.

Clinical Update

9/18/2018

Curcumin Effect on Liver

Long-term use of curcumin may negatively affect the liver in a small percentage of people, according to a new report. Get the details in the Concerns and Cautions section of the Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements Review. (Also see our Top Picks for turmeric and curcumin.)

Clinical Update

11/20/2018

Liver Toxicity With Niacin

The death of a woman from acute liver failure highlights the risk of a particular formulation of high-dose niacin. For details, see the Niacin section of the B Vitamin Supplements Review. (Also see our Top Picks for niacin and other B vitamins.)

Clinical Update

6/08/2019

Turmeric (Curcumin) and Fatty Liver Disease

Several studies suggest that curcumin supplements (from turmeric) may be helpful to people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. For details, see the What It Does section of the Turmeric & Curcumin Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks among products.

Clinical Update

6/08/2019

Liver Injury With Turmeric

Another case of liver injury from a turmeric/curcumin supplement was recently reported. Although not common, it is important to be aware of this potential risk. For details, see the Concerns and Cautions section of the Turmeric & Curcumin Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

7/13/2019

Liver Toxicity With Turmeric

Although uncommon, there are now several recent reports of liver toxicity associated with turmeric or curcumin supplements. Get the details in the Concerns and Cautions section of the Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks for turmeric and curcumin.

Clinical Update

5/22/2019

Liver Injury With Ashwagandha

Although rare, several cases of liver injury associated with the use of ashwagandha supplements were recently reported. See the details in the Concerns and Cautions section of the Ashwagandha Supplements Review. This has affected our selection of a Top Pick.

Clinical Update

10/14/2017

Fatty Liver and Vitamin D

A recent study showed that it is difficult to raise vitamin D levels in some people who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease -- a condition affecting 30% of Americans. This is concerning, as there may be benefits to raising low levels of vitamin D in such people. Learn more in the "What It Does" section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review >>

Clinical Update

8/13/2019

Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Fatty Liver Disease

Can consuming a Mediterranean diet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil decrease the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease? See what a new study found in the What It Does section of the Extra Virgin Olive Oil Review. Also see our tests and Top Picks among extra virgin olive oils.

Clinical Update

10/30/2019

Liver Toxicity With Turmeric/Curcumin

Several cases of liver toxicity from turmeric and curcumin supplements have been reported. For details, and the latest case, see the Concerns and Cautions section of the Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

3/25/2020

Another Case of Liver Injury With Turmeric

Although believed to be rare, we’ve been reporting a steady stream of cases of liver injury (hepatitis) with turmeric supplements. Learn the symptoms and read the latest in the Concerns and Cautions section of the Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

8/02/2020

Ginseng for Liver?

Does taking ginseng lower blood markers of liver disfunction? Find out what a recent study showed in the What It Does section of the Ginseng Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks for ginseng.

Clinical Update

7/10/2021

Liver Injury With Ashwagandha

Although rare, liver injury has been linked to the use of certain ashwagandha supplements. Another case was recently reported. Get the details in the Concerns and Cautions section of the Ashwagandha Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

7/17/2021

Fish Oil and Fatty Liver Disease?

Can taking fish oil over a lifetime increase the risk of developing fatty liver disease? Find out in the Concerns and Cautions section of the Fish Oil Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

11/06/2020

Fish Oil for Liver Disease?

Does taking fish oil help people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)? Find out what a recent study suggested in the What It Does section of our Fish Oil Supplements Review. Also see our Top Picks for fish oil.

Clinical Update

8/02/2012

Vitamin E and Liver Cancer

A study has shown a dramatic decrease in the risk of liver cancer among people taking vitamin E supplements or getting higher amounts of vitamin E from their diets. But don't necessarily rush out to get vitamin E. Read the details in the update to the Vitamin E Supplements ReviewMore >>

Clinical Update

12/23/2013

Liver Toxicity with Supplements, Including Green Tea

An increase in cases of liver toxicity associated with dietary supplement use has recently been reported. In an article about the findings, The New York Times reports that bodybuilding supplements and products containing green tea extracts are among those associated with such cases. For more information about green tea extracts and toxicity, see the Concerns and Cautions section of the Green Tea Supplements Review >> 

Clinical Update

12/14/2021

Liver Injury from Ashwagandha

Several cases of liver injury have been reported with use of ashwagandha supplements, including a recent report suggesting why this may happen. Get the details in the Concerns and Cautions section of our Ashwagandha Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

1/14/2022

Liver Injury With Reishi

Although very rare, liver injury has occurred in people taking reishi mushroom. Learn more, including details of a recent report, in the Concerns and Cautions section of our Reishi Mushroom Supplements Review.

Clinical Update

6/07/2022

Liver Danger With Muscle-Building Supplement

A case of liver toxicity was linked to use of an illegal ingredient found in some muscle-building supplements. Get the details in the Concerns and Cautions section of our Muscle & Workout Supplements Review.

News Release

10/26/2018

Best Vitamin A Supplements, Including Cod Liver Oils, Identified by ConsumerLab

White Plains, New York, October 26, 2018 — Vitamin A is necessary to maintain good vision, skin, and immune functioning, and supplementation can be beneficial for certain conditions — although most people get enough from food and getting too much vitamin A can be dangerous.

News Release

1/20/2015

ConsumerLab.com Identifies Best Vitamin A Supplements, But Cautions That Most People Don't Need Them

White Plains, New York, January 20, 2015 — Vitamin A supplements can save your sight and reduce your risk of infection if you are vitamin A deficient. However, deficiency is rare in the U.S., where people are more likely to be at risk for excess vitamin A.

News Release

11/26/2012

Tests Show Many Milk Thistle Supplements Low in Key Component -- Seven of Eleven Products Fail ConsumerLab.com Testing of Herb Used in Diabetes and Liver Diseases

White Plains, NY, November 26, 2012 — Recent tests by ConsumerLab.com of eleven milk thistle supplements show that only four met ConsumerLab.com's quality standards.

News Release

9/21/2011

Not all vitamin A supplements pass ConsumerLab.com tests -- New report reviews beta-carotene and cod liver oil supplements

White Plains, New York — September 21, 2011 — Recent tests of vitamin A supplements by ConsumerLab.com found one to contain only 54.3% of its listed amount of vitamin A. Another product mislabeled alpha carotene as vitamin A.

Recalls & Warnings

4/10/2021

Companies Deceived Consumers About Fish Oil for Liver Disease, Says FTC

On April 1, 2021, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced that fish oil supplement manufacturer BASF SE and its U.S.

Recalls & Warnings

1/04/2020

Hormonal Balance Supplement Tied to Liver Failure

An otherwise healthy 23-year old woman in Texas is reported to have recently developed liver failure (requiring a liver transplant) after taking the supplement Balance (from Alani Nu) for four months.

Recalls & Warnings

11/21/2017

Health Canada Calls for Stronger Warnings of Liver Risk on Green Tea Extract Products

On November 15, 2017, Health Canada (the Canadian equivalent of the FDA) recommended stronger warning statements about the risk of liver toxicity on labels of supplements containing green tea extract sold in Canada. 

Recalls & Warnings

11/04/2016

Liver Injuries Linked With Dietary Supplement Use on the Rise

The number of liver injuries associated with dietary supplement use has increased substantially in recent years, according to a recently published study in the journal Hepatology.

Recalls & Warnings

3/25/2002

FDA Advises Consumers of Risk of Severe Liver Toxicity with Kava

On March 25, 2002 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)issued a Consumer Advisory, as well as a letter to health care providers, advising of the potential risk of severe liver injury associated with the use of kava-containing dietary supplements.

Recalls & Warnings

1/07/2002

Liver Toxicity with Kava

As announced in a December 19, 2001 letter to healthcare professionals, The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating whether the use of dietary supplements containing kava (also known as kava kava or Piper methysticum) is associated with liver toxicity.

Recalls & Warnings

2/15/2006

New Zealand Warns of Liver Toxicity from Black Cohosh

On February 9, 2006, New Zealand's Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) announced new labelling and consumer information for medicines containing Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

Recalls & Warnings

5/01/2009

FDA Warns Consumers to Stop Using Hydroxycut -- Product Being Tested by ConsumerLab.com

On May 1, 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned consumers to immediately stop using Hydroxycut products by Iovate Health Sciences Inc., of Oakville, Ontario and distributed by Iovate Health Sciences USA Inc. of Blasdell, N.Y.

Recalls & Warnings

6/27/2007

Warning Labels to be Required for Green Tea and Black Cohosh Products

On June 26, 2007, the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee (DSI-EC) voted to require cautionary statements on the labels for green tea extracts and black cohosh dietary supplements.

Recalls & Warnings

5/18/2012

Caution with Butterbur Indicated by UK Warning

England's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) advised consumers in early 2012 not to take unlicensed butterbur (Petasites hybridus) herbal products due to potential health risks.

Recalls & Warnings

1/02/2004

Canada Reiterates Warning on Products Containing Kava

On December 23, 2003, Health Canada reminded Canadian consumers of the serious risks associated with the use of products containing kava.

Recalls & Warnings

8/25/2002

Canadian Recall and Stop-Sale Order on All Kava Products

Health Canada is issuing a stop-sale order for all products containing the herb kava after a safety assessment concluded there is insufficient evidence to support their safe use. The department is also requesting the recall of these products from all levels of the market.

Recalls & Warnings

5/23/2013

Maker of Liver Detox and Insulin Supplements Warned For Drug Claims

On April 24, 2013, the FDA issued a warning letter to Glucorell, Inc.

Recalls & Warnings

9/05/2013

Seller of Herbal Supplements and "Tonics" Warned For Manufacturing Violations and Drug Claims

On May 24, 2013, the FDA issued a warning letter to Sundial Herbal Products following a facility inspection which found the company's products, including Woman Back Tonic, Koromantee, Wood and Root Tonic, Arthritis, Asthma, Diabetics, Sundial Ashanti Weight Loss Energy Lifter, Appetite Suppresser, ...